Richard Foltz, University of Florida

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Abdul-Matin, Ibrahim. Green Deen: What Islam Teaches About Protecting the Planet. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2010.


Abe, Satoshi. “Pursuing Moral Dimensions of the Environment: A Study of Islamic Tradition in Contemporary Iran.” Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture 15, no. 2 (2021): 151–76.


​​Abouleish-Boes, Maximilian. “Religion and Agriculture: How Islam Forms the Moral Core of SEKEM’s Holistic Development Approach in Egypt.” In Religion and Sustainable Agriculture: World Spiritual Traditions and Food Ethics, edited by Todd LeVasseur, Pramod Parajuli, and Norman Wirzba, 295–314. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 2016.


Abu-Sway, Mustafa. Islam: The Environment and Health. Qualbert, SA: Islamic Medical Association of South Africa, 1999.


Ackerman, Denise, and Tahira Joyner. “Earth-Healing in South Africa: Challenges to Church and Mosque.” In Women Healing Earth: Third World Women on Ecology, Feminism, and Religion, edited by Rosemary Radford Ruether, 121–34. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1996.

Aftab, Tahera. “Text and Practice: Women and Nature in Islam.” In Custodians of the Earth? Women, Spirituality and the Environment, edited by Alaine Low and Soraya Tremayne. Oxford, UK: Berghahn Books, 2001.

Agwan, A. R., ed. Islam and the Environment. New Delhi: Institute of Objective Studies, 1997.


Ahmad, Ali. A Cosmopolitan Orientation of International Environmental Law: An Islamic Law Genre. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2001.


 _______. “Islamic Water Law as an Antidote for Maintaining Water Quality.” University of Denver Water Law Review 2, no. 2 (Spring 1999): 170–88.


Ahmad, Ali Nobil. “Disaster Cosmologies in Comparative Perspective: Islam, Climate Change and the 2010 Floods in Pakistan’s Southern Punjab.” Journal of Historical Sociology 32, no. 3 (June 2019): 311–30.


Ahmad, Akhtaruddin. Islam and the Environmental Crises. London: Ta-Ha Publishers, 1998.


Ajmal, Mohammed. “Islam and Ecological Problems.” In Quest for New Science, edited by Rais Ahmed and S. Naseem Ahmed, 215–20. Aligarh: Centre for Studies on Science, 1984.


Al-Amin, Hi’at Muhammad. Al-fiqhah al-b’at. Beirut: Mu’assasat al-wa ‘i al-islami, 1420 (2000).


Al-Jayyousi, Odeh Rashed. Islam and Sustainable Development: New Worldviews. Surrey, England: Gower Publishing, 2012.


Al-Safa, Ikhwan. The Animals’ Lawsuit Against Humanity: An Illustrated 10th Century Iraqi Ecological Fable. Translated by Anson Laytner. Louisville, KY: Fons Vitae, 2005.


Ali, Saleem H. “Reconciling Islamic Ethics, Fossil Fuel Dependence, and Climate Change in the Middle East.” Review of Middle East Studies 50, no. 2 (August 2016): 172–78.


Alkatiri, Wardah. “The Loss of Tawhidi Worldview in Islamic World: Another Ecological Consequence of Modernization.” Comparative Islamic Studies 14, no. 1-2 (2018): 53-120.


Ammar, Nawal H. “An Islamic Response to the Manifest Ecological Crisis: Issues of Justice.” In Visions of a New Earth: Religious Perspectives on Population, Consumption, and Ecology, edited by Harold Coward and Daniel C. Maguire, 131– 46. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2000.


_______. “Ecological Justice and Human Rights for Women in Islam.” In Islam and Ecology: A Bestowed Trust, edited by Richard C. Foltz, Frederick M. Denny, and Azizan Baharuddin, 377–89. Religions of the World and Ecology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003.


_______. “Islam and Deep Ecology.” In Deep Ecology and World Religions: New Essays on Sacred Ground, edited by David Landis Barnhill and Roger S. Gottlieb, 193–211. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2001.


_______. “Islam and the Environment: A Legalistic and Textual View.” In Population, Consumption, and the Environment: Religious and Secular Responses, edited by Harold Coward and Daniel C. Maguire, 67. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1995.


Asmal, Abdul Cader, and Mohammed Asmal. “As Islamic Perspective.” In Consumption, Population, and Sustainability: Perspectives from Science and Religion, edited by Audrey Chapman, Rodney Peterson, and Barbara Smith-Moran, 157–65. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2000.


Ayduz, Davud. “The Approach to the Environment Question of the Qur’an and its Contemporary Commentary, the Risale-i Nur.” Paper presented at the Fourth International Symposium on Bediuzzaman Said Nursi: A Contemporary Approach Toward Understanding the Qur’an: The Example of Risale-i Nur. Istanbul, Turkey, September 20–22, 1998.


Ba Kader, Abou Bakr Ahmed. Environmental Protection in Islam. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1995.


Ba Kader, Abou Bakr Ahmed, Abdul Latif Tawfik El Shirazy Al Sabagh, Mohamed Al Sayyed Al Glenid, and Mawil Y. Izzi Deen. Islamic Principles for the Conservation of the Natural Environment. Second Edition. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 1983.


Ba Ubaid, Ali Yeslam. “Environment, Ethics, and Design: An Inquiry into the Ethical Underpinnings for a Contemporary Muslim Environmentalism and its Environmental Design Implications.” Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Pennsylvania, 1999.


Bagader, Abubakr Ahmed, Abdullatif Tawfik El-Chirazi El-Sabbagh, Mohamad As-Sayyid Al-Glayand, Mawil Yousuf Izzi-Deen Samarrai, and Othman Abd-ar-Rahman Llewellyn. “Environmental Protection in Islam.” International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 20. Second Revised Edition. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN, 1994.


Bagir, Zainal Abidin, Michael S. Northcott, and Frans Wijsen, eds. Varieties of Religion and Ecology: Dispatches from Indonesia. Münster, Germany: LIT Verlag, 2021.


Bagir, Zainal Abidin and Najiyah Martiam. “Islam.” In Routledge Handbook of Religion and Ecology, edited by Willis Jenkins, Mary Evelyn Tucker, and John Grim, 79-87. London and New York: Routledge, 2017.


Ban, E.G. The Constant Feud: Forest vs. Desert. New York, NY: Gefen, 1999.


Barnhill, David, and Roger Gottlieb, eds. Deep Ecology and World Religions: New Essays on Sacred Ground. Albany, NY: SUNY, 2001.


Bell, Colin, Jonathan Chaplin, and Robert White, eds. Living Lightly, Living Faithfully. Cambridge: Faraday Institute for Science and Religion, 2013.


Bivins, Mary W. “Women, Ecology, and Islam in the Making of Modern Hausa Cultural History.” Ph.D. Dissertation. Michigan State University, 1994.


Bousquet, G. “Des animaux et de leur traitement selon le Judaisme, le Christianisme et l’Islam.” Studia Islamica 9 (1958): 31–48.


Bryer, Jenny Banks. “Science and the Environment Symposium II: The Black Sea in Crisis.” Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 10 (March 1999): 69-76.


Callicott, J. Baird. “The Historical Roots of Western European Environmental Attitudes and Values: Islam.” In Earth’s Insights: A Multicultural Survey of Ecological Ethics from the Mediterranean Basin to the Australian Outback, 30–36. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1994.


Canan, Ibrahim. Environmental Ethics in the Light of the Hadiths (In Turkish). Istanbul: New Asia Press, 1995.


_______. “Environment in Islam.” Yeni Turkiye 5 (July-August 1995): 27–38.


Canatan, Kadir. “The Paradigmatic Background to the Ecological Crisis and Said Nursi’s Cosmological Teachings.” Paper presented at the Fourth International Symposium on Bediuzzaman Said Nursi: A Contemporary Approach Toward Understanding the Qur’an: The Example of Risale-i Nur. Istanbul, Turkey, September 20–22, 1998.


Carnie, Tony. “Greening Religion: New Islamic Covenant for the Earth.” New Frame, March 25, 2021.


Chittick, William. “God Surrounds All Things: An Islamic Perspective on the Environment.” The World and I 1, no. 6 (June 1986): 671–78.


Damad, Seyyed Mostafa Mohaghegh. “A Discourse on Nature and Environment from an Islamic Perspective.” Tehran: Department of the Environment, 2001.


Department of Environmental Protection. Majmu ‘e-ye maqalat-e avalin hamayesh-e eslam va mohit-e zist. Papers from the first conference on Islam and the Environment. Tehran: Department of Environmental Protection, 1378 (1999).


Dutton, Yasin. “Islam and the Environment: A Framework for Inquiry.” Faiths and the Environment: Conference Papers, 46–70. Faith in Dialogue, no. 1. London: Centre for Inter-Faith Dialogue, 1996.


Dwivedi, O. P., ed. World Religions and the Environment. New Delhi: Gilanjal Publishing House, 1989.


El-Malik, Walied M. H. Minerals Investment Under Shari’a Law. Kluwer Law International, 1993.


Erdur, Oguz. “Reappropriating the ‘Green’: Islamist Environmentalism.” New Perspectives on Turkey 17 (Fall 1997): 151–66.


Faruqui, Naser, Asit Biswas, and Murad Bino, eds. Water Management in Islam. Tokyo, Japan: United Nations University Press, 2001.


Feitelson, Eran and Marwan Haddad, eds. Management of Shared Groundwater Resources: The Israli-Palestinian Case with an International Perspective. New York: Springer Science and Business Media, 2012.


Findly, E. “Jahangir’s Vow of Non-Violence.” Journal of American Oriental Society 107, no. 2 (1987): 245–56.


Foltz, Richard. Animals in Islamic Traditions and Muslim Cultures. Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications, 2006.


________. “Ecology in Islam.” In Encyclopedia of Sciences and Religion, edited by Anne L. C. Runehov and Lluiz Oviedo, 661-677. The Netherlands: Springer, 2013.


________. ed. Environmentalism in the Muslim World. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, 2005.


_______. “Is There an Islamic Environmentalism?” Environmental Ethics 22, no. 4 (2000): 63–72.


________. Worldviews, Religion, and the Environment. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2003.


Foltz, Richard C., Azizan Baharuddin, and Frederick M. Denny, eds. Islam and Ecology: A Bestowed Trust. Cambridge, MA: Center for the Study of World Religions, Harvard Divinity School, 2003.


Forward, Martin, and Mohamed Alam, “Islam.” In Attitudes to Nature, edited by Jean Holm and John Bowker, 79–100. London: Pinter, 1994.


Gade, Anna. “Islamic Law and the Environment in Indonesia.” Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology 19, no. 2 (2015): 161–83.


________. Muslim Environmentalisms: Religious and Social Foundations. New York: Columbia University Press, 2019.


Gauman, Bülent. New Islamist Architecture and Urbanism: Negotiating Nation and Islam through Built Environment in Turkey. Abingdon, Oxon and New York, NY: Routledge, 2018.


Haleem, Harfiya Abdel, ed. Islam and the Environment. London: Ta-Ha Publishers, 1998.


Hamed, Safei El-Deen. “Seeing the Environment Through Islamic Eyes: Application of Shariah to Natural Resources Planning and Management.” Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 6, no. 2 (1993): 145–64.


Haq, S. Nomanul. “Islam.” In A Companion to Environmental Philosophy, edited by Dale Jamieson, 111–29. London: Blackwell, 2001.


Haque, Nadeem. “Al-Hafiz B. A. Masri: Muslim, Scholar, Activist–Rebel with a Just Cause.” In Call to Compassion: Religious Perspectives in Animal Advocacy, edited by Lisa Kemmerer and Anthony J. Nocella II, 185–96. Brooklyn, NY: Lantern Books, 2011.


Haque, Nadeem, Al-Hafiz B. A. Masri, and Mehran Banaei. Ecolibrium: The Sacred Balance in Islam. Boston, MA: Beacon Books, 2021.


Hashem, Mazen. “Contemporary Islamic Activism: The Shades of Praxis.” Sociology of Religion 67, no. 1 (Spring 2006): 23-41.


Helminski, Camille, ed. The Book of Nature: An Anthology of Spiritual Perspectives on Nature. Chicago, IL: Independent Publishers Group, 2006.


Helmy, N. Islam and Environment 2–Animal Life. Kuwait: Environment Protection Council, 1989.


Hope, Marjorie, and James Young. “Islam and Ecology.” Cross Currents 44, no. 2(Summer 1994): 180-193.


Hrynkow, Christopher. “Ecology and Islam.” In Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God, Volume 1, edited by Coeli Fitzpatrick and Adam Hani Walker, 157-161. Santa Barbara, CA and Oxford: ABC-CLIO, 2014.


Husaini, S. Waqar Ahmad. Islamic Environmental Systems Engineering. London: Macmillan, 1980.


I-Abbas, Fakhar. Animal’s Rights in Islam: Islam and Animal Rights. Saarbrücken, Germany: VDM Verlag, 2009.

Ibrahim, F. Ecological Imbalances in the Republic of Sudan. Bayreuth: Druckhaus Bayreuth Verlagsgesellschaft, 1984.


Ikhwan al-Safa (The Brethren of Purity). The Case of the Animals versus Man Before the King of the Jinn. Translated by Lenn Evan Goodman. Boston, MA: Twayne Publishers, 1978.


International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN)-Pakistan. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy. Karachi: IUCN, 1992.


Islam, Md Saidul. “Old Philosophy, New Movement: The Rise of the Islamic Ecological Paradigm in the Discourse of Environmentalism.” Nature and Culture 7, no. 1 (2012): 72-94.


Izz al-Din, Muil Yusuf. “Islam and the Environment: Theory and Practice.” Journal of Beliefs and Values 18, no. 1 (1997): 47–58.


________. “Islamic Environmental Ethic, Law, and Society.” In Ethics of Environment and Development: Global Challenge and International Response, edited by J. Ronald Engel and Joan Gibb Engel, 189–98. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 1990.


________. The Environmental Dimensions of Islam. Cambridge: Lutterworth, 2000.


Izzi Dien, Mawil. “Islamic Concepts of Creation and Environmental Sustainability.” In Creation and Abrahamic Faiths, edited by Neil Spurway, 119-135. Cambridge: Cambridge Social Publishing, 2008.


Jamaa, La. “Fatwas of the Indonesian Council of Ulama and its Contributions to the Development of Contemporary Islamic Law in Indonesia.” Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies 8, no. 1 (2018): 29-56.


Johnson-Davies, D. The Island of Animals, Adapted from an Arabic Fable. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1994.

Johnston, David. Earth, Empire, and Sacred Text: Muslims and Christians as Trustees of Creation. Oakville, CT: Equinox Publishing, 2010.


________. “Toward Muslims and Christians as Joint Caretakers of Creation in a Postmodern World.” Ph.D. Dissertation. Fuller Theological Seminary, 2001.


Joma, Hesam Addin Abdul Salam. “The Earth as a mosque: Integration of the traditional Islamic environmental planning ethic with agricultural and water development policies in Saudi Arabia.” Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Pennsylvania, 1991.

Kaplan, Jeffrey. “Review of Mawil Izzi Dien’s The Environmental Dimensions of Islam.” Worldviews: Environment, Culture, Religion 5, no. 1 (2001): 110–12.


Kemmerer, Lisa. “Islam: Muhammad, Sacred Writings, and Animal Liberation.” In Call to Compassion: Religious Perspectives in Animal Advocacy, edited by Lisa Kemmerer and Anthony J. Nocella II, 171–84. Brooklyn, NY: Lantern Books, 2011.

Khalid, Fazlun. “Exploring Environmental Ethics in Islam: Insights from the Qu’ran and the Practice of Prophet Muhammad, in Religion and Ecology.” In The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Religion and Ecology, edited by John Hart, 130-145. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2017.


_______. “Guardians of the Natural Order.” Journal of the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) Our Planet, 8, no. 2 (July 1996).


_______. Qur’an: Creation and Conservation. Birmingham, United Kingdom: IFEES,



_______. Signs on the Earth: Islam, Modernity, and the Climate Crisis. Markfield, Leicestershire, England: Kube Publishing, 2019.


Khalid, Fazlun, and Joanne O’Brien, eds. Islam and Ecology. New York: Cassell, 1992.


Khalid, Fazlun and Ali Kh. Thani. Teachers Guide Book for Islamic Environmental Education: Promoting Conservation of Misali Island - Pemba, Tanzania. Birmingham, UK: Islamic Foundation for Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 2008.


Khalil Suleiman, Majda, Walid Saleh, Mukhtar Hashemi, and Narayana R. Bhat, eds. “The Hima System: Hopes and Impediments - A Commentary on Global Trends.” In International Workshop: Towards an Implementation Strategy for Human Integrated Management Approach Governance System: Theories, Concepts, Methodologies, Case Studies and Action Plans. Kuwait: Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, 2013.


Khattak, Muna Khayal, Muhammad Yasir Khan, and Munazza Hayat. “Islam and Environment: Time for Green Jihad.” Pakistan Journal of Islamic Research 20, no. 2 (December 2019): 97–106.


Khermimoun, Jamel. The Environment and Islam. Paris: Al Bouraq, 2018.

_______. Ethics and Environment (Acts of the symposium). Paris: L’Harmattan, 2016.

_______. Islam in Modern Societies. Bloomington: Westbow Press, 2018.

Kilic, Sadik. “The Message of the Risale-i Nur in the Ecological Context.” Paper presented at the Fourth International Symposium on Bediuzzaman Said Nursi: A Contemporary Approach Toward Understanding the Qur’an: The Example of Risale-i Nur. Istanbul, Turkey, September 20–22, 1998.


Koehrsen, Jens. “Muslims and Climate Change: How Islam, Muslim Organizations, and Religious Leaders Influence Climate Change Perceptions and Mitigation Activities.” WIREs Climate Change 12, no. 3 (February 24, 2021): e702.


Kula, Erhun. “Islam and Environmental Conservation.” Environmental Conservation 28, no. 1 (2001): 2–9.


Laxman, Lekha, Abdul Haseeb Ansari, and Majdah Zawawi. “The Islamic Approach to Conserving Biodiversity for Global Sustainability: An Exploration.” Advances in Environmental Biology 8, no. 3 (January 2014): 748–64.


Ling, Chee Yoke. Humanity Must Protect Nature: What Islam, Taoism, Hinduism, and Christianity Have to Say about Environmental Protection. Penang, Malaysia: Third World Science Movement, Consumers Association of Penang, 1987.


Llewelyn, Othman. “Desert Reclamation and Conservation in Islamic Law.” The Muslim Scientist 11, no. 9 (1982): 9–29.


Lovejoy, Paul. Ecology and Ethnography of Muslim Trade in West Africa. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2005.


Mangunjaya, Fachruddin Majeri. “Developing Environmental Awareness and Conservation through Islamic Teaching.” Journal of Islamic Studies 22, no. 1 (2011): 36-49.


Mangunjaya, Fachruddin Majeri, Chantal Elkin, Gugah Praharawati, Imran S.L. Tobing, and Yeremiah R. Tjamin. “Protecting Tigers with a Fatwa: Lesson Learn on Faith Base Approach for Conservation.” Asian Journal of Conservation Biology 7, no. 2 (2018): 78-81.


Mangunjaya, Fachruddin Majeri, and Gugah Praharawati. “Fatwas on Boosting Environmental Conservation in Indonesia.” Religions 10, no. 10 (2019): 570.


Manzoor, S. Parviz. “Environment and Values: An Islamic Perspective.” In Touch of Midas Scientific Values and the Environment in Islam and the West, edited by Ziauddin Sardar, 150–70. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984.

Masri, Al-Hafiz. “Animal Experimentation: The Muslim Viewpoint.” In Animal Sacrifices: Religious Perspectives on the Use of Animals in Science, edited by Tom Regan, 171–98. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1986.


_______. Animal Welfare in Islam. Markfield: Islamic Foundation, 2007.

________. Islamic Concern for Animals. Petersfield, Hants, England: The Athene Trust, 1987.

McKay, Jeanne E., Fachruddin M. Mangunjaya, Yoan Dinata, Stuart R. Harrop, and Fazlun Khalid. “Practise What You Preach: A Faith-based Approach to Conservation in Indonesia.” Oryx FirstView (2013): 1-7.


Meier, Fritz. “The Problems of Nature in the Esoteric Monism of Islam.” Translated by R. Mannheim. In Spirit and Nature: Papers from the Eranos Yearbooks, edited by Joseph Campbell, 149–203. New York: Pantheon, 1954.

Mikhail, Alan. The Animal in Ottoman Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.


________. Under Osman’s Tree: The Ottoman Empire, Egypt, and Environmental History. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press, 2017.


Musselman, Lytton John. Figs, Dates, Laurel, and Myrrh: Plants of the Bible and the Quran. Portland, OR: Timber Press, 2007.


Narayan, Rajdeva, ed. Ecology and Religion: Ecological Concepts in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Islam, Christianity, and Sikhism. Muzaffarpur: Institute for Socio-Legal Studies, 2003.


Nasif, Abdullah Omar. “The Muslim Declaration of Nature.” Environmental Policy and Law 17, no. 1 (1987): 47.


Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. “Islam and the Environmental Crisis.” In Spirit and Nature, edited by Steven C. Rockefeller and John C. Elder, 83–108. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1992.


________. “Islam and the Environmental Crisis.” The Islamic Quarterly 34, no. 4 (1991): 217–34.


________. “Islam and the Environmental Crisis.” Journal of Islamic Science 6, no. 2 (1990): 217–34.


________. Man and Nature: The Spiritual Crisis in Modern Man. Revised Edition. Chicago, IL: Kazi Publishers, 1997.


________. Religion and the Order of Nature. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.


________. “The Ecological Problem in Light of Sufism: The Conquest of Nature and the Teachings of Eastern Science.” In Sufi Essays, edited by Seyyed Hossein Nasr, 152–63. Second Edition. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1991.


Othman, Fadil, and Johan Sohaili. “Man’s Duty to Protect the Environment.” The New Straits Times, December 10, 1998.


Ozdemir, Ibrahim. “Bediuzzaman Said Nursi’s Approach to the Environment.” Paper presented at the Fourth International Symposium on Bediuzzaman Said Nursi: A Contemporary Approach Toward Understanding the Qur’an: The Example of Risale-i Nur. Istanbul, Turkey, September 20–22, 1998.


________. Cevre ve Din (Environment and Religion). Ankara, Turkey: Ministry of Environment, 1997.

________. The Ethical Dimension of Human Attitude Toward Nature. Ankara: Ministry of Environment, 1997.


Palmer, Martin, and Victoria Finlay, eds. Faith in Conservation: New Approaches to Religions and the Environment. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications, 2003.


Peirone, Federico. “Islam and Ecology in the Mediterranean Muslim Kulturkreise.” Hamdard Islamicus 5, no. 2 (1982): 3–31.


Pusch, Barbara. “The Ecology Debate Among Muslim Intellectuals in Turkey.” Les Annales de l’Autre Islam 6 (1999): 195–209.


________. “The Greening of Islamic Politics: A Godsend for the Environment?” In Environmentalism in Turkey: Between Democracy and Development, edited by Fikret Adaman and Murat Arsel. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2005.

Quadir, Tarik M. Traditional Islamic Environmentalism: The Vision of Seyyed Hossein Nasr. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2013.


Rafiq, M., and Mohammad Ajmal. “Islam and the Present Ecological Crisis.” In World Religions and the Environment, edited by O. P. Dwivedi, 119–37. New Delhi: Gilanjal Publishing House, 1989.


Rahman, M. K. “Environmental Awareness in Islam.” MAAS Journal of Islamic Science 2, no. 1 (1986): 99–106.


Ramlan, Shazny. “Implementing Islamic Law to Protect the Environment: Insights from Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia.” Asia Pacific Journal of Environmental Law 23, no. 2 (December 2020): 202–30.


Raskhy, Fruzan. “Ertebat-e ensan va tabi’at az negah-e eslam va Ayin-e Da’o” (The Relationship between Man and Nature in Islam and Daoism). Haft Asman 1, no. 2 (1387/1999): 87–117.


Rizvi, Ali M. “Islamic Environmental Ethics and the Challenge of Anthropocentrism.” American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 27, no. 3 (2010): 53–78.

Sajoo, Amyn. Muslim Ethics: Emerging Vistas. London, UK: Institute for Small Studies, 2004.


Sardar, Ziauddin, ed. An Early Crescent: The Future of Knowledge and the Environment in Islam. London: Mansell, 1989.


________. Touch of Midas: Scientific Values and the Environment in Islam and the West. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984.


________. “Toward an Islamic Theory of the Environment.” In Islamic Futures: A Shape of Ideas to Come, edited by Ziauddin Sardar, 224–37. London: Mansell, 1985.


Schuler, Barbara, ed. Environmental and Climate Change in South and Southeast Asia: How Are Local Cultures Coping? Vol. 2. Climate and Culture. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2014.


Schimmel, Annemarie. Islam and the Wonders of Creation: The Animal Kingdom. London: Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, 2003.


Selin, Helaine, ed. Nature Across Cultures: Views of Nature and the Environment in Non-Western Cultures. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003.


Shafaat, Ahmad. “Ecological Implications of an Islamic View of God, Universe, and Human Beings.” Ecumenism 134 (1999): 18-21.


Shaikh, Zinnira Hafiz. “Islamic Perspectives on Veganism.” Hamad Bin Khalifa University, 2020.


Shankland, David. Islam and Society in Turkey. Huntingdon: Eothen Press, 1999.


Shroder, John and Sher Jan Ahmadzai. “Water in Islam.” In Transboundary Water Resources in Afghanistan, 361-375. Cambridge, MA & The Netherlands: Elsevier, 2016.


Stewart, Philip J. “Islamic Law as a Factor in Grazing Management: The Pilgrimage Sacrifice.”

In Proceedings of the First International Rangeland Congress, Denver, Colorado, August 14–18, 1978, edited by D. N. Hyder, 119–20. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management, 1978.


Swearington, Will D., and Abdellatif Bencherifa, eds. The North African Environment at Risk. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996.

Taneja, Anand Vivek. Jinnealogy: Time, Islam, and Ecological Thought in the Medieval Ruins of Delhi. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2017.


Timm, Roger E. “The Ecological Fallout of Islamic Creation Theology.” In Worldviews and Ecology, edited by Mary Evelyn Tucker and John A. Grim, 83–95. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 1993.


Timmerer, Peter, ed. “Islam and the Environment.” In Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change, 5, Social and Economic Dimensions of Global Environmental Change: 332–39. Chichester and New York: Wiley, 2002.


Tlili, Sarra. “Animal Ethics in Islam: A Review Article.” Religions 9, no. 9 (September 2018): 269.


________. Animals in the Qur’an. New York & Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Tolu-e-Islam Movement. “Man and His Environment. In Islam: A Challenge.” Lahore: Tolu-e-Islam, 2000.


Uslu, I. The Environmental Problems: From Transformation in the Conception of Cosmos to the Ecological Catastrophe (In Turkish). Istanbul: Insan Press, 1995.


Wellman, David J. Sustainable Diplomacy: Ecology, Religion, and Ethics in Muslim-Christian Relations. New York, NY: Palgrave, 2004.


Wersal, Lisa. “Islam and Environmental Ethics: Tradition Responds to Contemporary Challenges.” Zygon 30, no. 3 (1995): 451–59.


Wescoat, James L., Jr. “Muslim Contributions to Geography and Environmental Ethics: The Challenges of Comparison and Pluralism.” In Philosophy and Geography I: Space, Place, and Environmental Ethics, edited by Andrew Light and Jonathan M. Smith, 91–116. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1997.


_______. “The ‘Right of Thirst’ for Animals in Islamic Law: A Comparative Approach.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 13, no. 6 (1995): 637–54.


_______. “From the Gardens of the Qur’an to the Gardens of Lahore,” Landscape Research 20 (1995): 19–29. 


Wilkinson, John C. “Muslim Land and Water Law.” Journal of Islamic Studies 1 (1990): 54–72.

Zaidi, Iqtidar H. “On the Ethics of Man’s Interaction with the Environment: An Islamic Approach.” Environmental Ethics 3, no. 1 (Spring 1981): 35–47.


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