Environmental Justice Annotated Bibliography
An Annotated Bibliography
Adamson, Joni. American Indian Literatrue, Environmental Justice, and Ecocriticism: The Middle Place. Tuscon, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 2001.
Abstract: (From the Publisher) Although much contemporary American Indian literature examines the relationship between humans and the land, most Native authors do not set their work in the “pristine wilderness” celebrated by mainstream nature writers. Instead, they focus on settings such as reservations, open-pit mines, and contested borderlands. Drawing on her own teaching experience among Native Americans and on lessons learned from such recent scenes of confrontation as Chiapas and Black Mesa, Joni Adamson explores why what counts as “nature” is often very different for multicultural writers and activist groups than it is for mainstream environmentalists. This powerful book is one of the first to examine the intersections between literature and the environment from the perspective of the oppressions of race, class, gender, and nature, and the first to review American Indian literature from the standpoint of environmental justice and ecocriticism.
Adamson, Joni, Mei Mei Evans, and Rachel Stein, eds. The Environmental Justice Reader: Politics, Poetics, and Pedagogy. Tuscon, AZ: The University of Arizona Press, 2002.
Abstract: (From Publisher) This book examines environmental justice in its social, economic, political, and cultural dimensions in both local and global contexts, with special attention paid to intersections of race, gender, and class inequality. The first book to link political studies, literary analysis, and teaching strategies, it offers a multivocal approach that combines perspectives from organizations such as the Southwest Network for Environmental and Economic Justice and the International Indigenous Treaty Council with the insights of such notable scholars as Devon Peña, Giovanna Di Chiro, and Valerie Kuletz, and also includes a range of newer voices in the field. This collection approaches environmental justice concerns from diverse geographical, ethnic, and disciplinary perspectives, always
viewing environmental issues as integral to problems of social inequality and oppression. It offers new case studies of native Alaskans’ protests over radiation poisoning; Hispanos’ struggles to protect their land and water rights; Pacific Islanders’ resistance to nuclear weapons testing and nuclear waste storage; and the efforts of women employees of maquiladoras to obtain safer living and working environments along the U.S.-Mexican border. The selections also include cultural analyses of environmental justice arts, such as community art and greening projects in inner-city Baltimore, and literary analyses of writers such as Jimmy Santiago Baca, Linda Hogan, Barbara Neely, Nez Perce orators, Ken Saro-Wiwa, and Karen Yamashita—artists who address issues such as toxicity and cancer, lead poisoning of urban African American communities, and Native American struggles to remove dams and save salmon. The book closes with a section of essays that offer models to teachers hoping to incorporate these issues and texts into their classrooms. By combining this array of perspectives, this book makes the field of environmental justice more accessible to scholars, students, and concerned readers.
Adger, W. Niel, Jouni Paavola, and Saleemul Huq, eds. Fairness in Adaptation to Climate Change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.
Abstract: (From Publisher) As a global society, we need to take action not only to prevent the potentially catastrophic effects of climate change but also to adapt to the unavoidable effects of climate change already imposed on the world. Fairness in Adaptation to Climate Change looks at the challenges of ensuring that policy responses to climate change do not place undue and unfair burdens on already vulnerable populations. All countries will be endangered by climate change risks from floods, drought, and other extreme weather events, but developing countries are more dependent on climate-sensitive livelihoods such as farming and fishing and hence are more vulnerable. Despite this, the concerns of developing countries are marginalized in climate policy decisions that exacerbate current vulnerabilities.
Agyeman, Julian. Sustainable Communities and the Challenge of Environmental Justice. New York, NY: New York University Press, 2005.
Abstract (From Publisher): Popularized in the movies Erin Brockovich and A Civil Action, environmental justice refers to any local response to a threat against community health. In this book, Julian Agyeman argues that environmental justice and the sustainable communities movement are compatible in practical ways. Yet sustainability, which focuses on meeting our needs today while not compromising the ability of our successors to meet their needs, has not always partnered with the challenges of environmental justice. Sustainable Communities and the Challenge of Environmental Justice explores the ideological differences between these two groups and shows how they can work together. Agyeman provides concrete examples of potential model organizations that employ the types of strategies he advocates. This book is vital to the efforts of community organizers, policymakers, and everyone interested in a better environment and community health.
Agyeman, Julian, Robert Bullard, and Bob Evans, eds. Just Sustainabilities: Development in an Unequal World. Boston, MA: The MIT Press, 2003.
Abstract (From Publisher): Environmental activists and academics alike are realizing that a sustainable society must be a just one.
Environmental degradation is almost always linked to questions of human equality and quality of life. Throughout the world, those segments of the population that have the least political power and are the most marginalized are selectively victimized by environmental crises. Just Sustainabilities argues that social and environmental justice within and between nations should be an integral part of the policies and agreements that promote sustainable development. The book addresses many aspects of the links between environmental quality and human equality and between sustainability and environmental justice more generally. The topics discussed include anthropocentrism; biotechnology; bioprospecting; biocultural assimilation; deep and radical ecology; ecological debt; ecological democracy; ecological footprints; ecological modernization; feminism and gender; globalization; participatory research; place, identity, and legal rights; precaution; risk society; selective victimization; and valuation.
Ahern, Annette. “Preservation by ‘Letting Go’: Buddhist Impermanence (Anicca) in Ruether’s Ecotheology.” Ecotheology: Journal of Religion, Nature & the Environment. 11.2(2006): 212-232.
From Abstract: Christianity, Judaism and Buddhism contain rich teaching and motivational resources that pertain directly to the struggle for environmental justice in this age of what Engaged Buddhist leader Sulak Sivaraksa identifies as global militaristic capitalism. Guided by the work of ecofeminist theologian Rosemary Ruether and Buddhist scholar Rita Gross, this paper explores meanings and symbols within Judaism, Christianity, and Buddhism that promote environmental values and practice. The paper begins with an overview of Ruether’s interpretation of the covenantal and sacramental traditions in Judaism and Christianity (1992 and 2000) followed by a close look at the dialogue between Gross and Ruether (2001) in which the relevance of the Buddhist teachings concerning impermanence (anicca) and interdependence for the environmental movement is unfolded. This article concludes by articulating a different interpretive strategy for accessing the Christian community than that provided by Ruether while at the same time building on her work.
Akinade, Akintunde E. “Kinship with All Creation : An African Reflection on Eco-Justice.” In Living Pulpit, 9.2(Ap-Je 2000): 22.
Allen, Barbara. Uneasy Alchemy: Citizens and Experts in Louisiana’s Chemical Corridor Disputes. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2003.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Louisiana annually reports over eight tons of toxic waste for each citizen. Uneasy Alchemy examines the role of experts – lawyers, economists, health professionals, and scientists – in the struggles for environmental justice in the state’s infamous Chemical Corridor or “Cancer Alley.” This legendary toxic zone between New Orleans and Baton Rouge is home to about 125 oil and chemical plants; cancer and respiratory illness rates there are among the highest in the nation. The efforts of residents to ensure a healthy environment is one of the most important social justice movements of the post-civil rights era.
Anand, Ruchi. International Environmental Justice: A North-South Dimension. Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2004.
Abstract: (From Publisher) This important work satisfies the need for a thorough assessment of environmental justice concerns at the global level. Using three international environmental case studies, the book extends the theory of environmental justice, commonly used in domestic settings, to the international arena of environmental law, policy and politics. Spanning the traditional boundaries between political science, international relations, international law, international political economy and policy studies, this text is intended primarily for scholars of environmental justice, national and international policymakers, businesses, activists and students of international environmental law, public policy and political economy of the third world.
Andiñach, Pablo R. “In defence of life.” Trans. by Jody Pavilack. In
Studies in World Christianity 8.2(2002): 285-295.
Barns, Ian. “Eschatological Hope and Ecological Justice.” Ecotheology: Journal of Religion, Nature, and the Environment 5.5-6(1999): 173- 185.
Abstract: Focuses on practical theology of environmental justice within the corporate life of Christian community. Green credentials of Christianity; Sustained theological reflection on liturgical worship.
Bass, Stephen, Hannah Reid, David Satterthwaite, and Paul Steele, eds.
Reducing Poverty and Sustaining the Environment: The Politics of Local Engagement. London, UK: Earthscan, 2005.
Abstract: (From Publisher) There are growing concerns and recognition that some development work by governments, aid agencies and NGOs ignores poor peoples dependence on environmental quality. There are also signs that some environmental work is pushing anti-people protection methodologies. This volume is the first to address the role of politics in environmental issues that matter to the poor and to examine the important links between poverty and environment. The book demonstrates how working within the national and local political context is crucial for
addressing poverty/environment issues, such as environmental health, access to key natural resources for livelihoods, security and coping with environmental disasters. The editors advocate ways in which stakeholders can progress beyond bemoaning the lack of political will, and show how political processes can be used to change things for the better from both poverty reduction and environmental perspectives.
Bauer, Joanne. Forging Environmentalism: Justice, Livelihood, and Contested Environments. Armonk, NY: M.E Sharpe, 2006.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Drawing on an unusually rich empirical base, this timely and compelling book examines how environmental values are constructed and legitimized within the policy process. It trains the spotlight on four environmentally significant countries– China, Japan, India, and the United States–representing a wide diversity of cultural, social, economic, and political characteristics.
Through a combination of case studies and comparative analysis, the contributors illuminate the cultural assumptions, standards, and analytic techniques that shape environmental actions and policies around the world.
Beckerman, Wilfred and Joanna Pasek. Justice, Posterity, and the Environment. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Abstract: (From Publisher) In rich countries, environmental problems are seen as problems of prosperity. In poor countries they are seen as problems of poverty. This is because the environmental problems in poor countries, such as lack of clean drinking water, are problems that affect them here and now, whereas in rich countries the environmental problems that people worry about most are those that- largely as a result of prosperity and economic growth-seem likely to harm mainly future generations. But what exactly are our obligations to future generations? Are these determined by their ‘rights’, or intergenerational justice, or equity, or ‘sustainable development’?
The first part of the book argues that none of these concepts provides any guidance, but that we still have a moral obligation to take account of the interests that future generations will have. And an appraisal of probable developments suggests that, while environmental problems have to be taken seriously, our main
obligation to future generations is to bequeath to them a society in which there is greater respect for basic human rights than is the case today. Furthermore, generations are not homogeneous entities.
Resources devoted to environmental protection cannot be used for, say, health care or education or housing, not to mention the urgent claims in poor countries for better food, sanitation, drinking water, shelter, and basic infrastructures to prevent or cure widespread disease. It cannot serve the interests of justice if the burden of protecting the environment for the benefit of posterity is born mainly by poorer people today.
Bendik-Keymer, Jeremy. The Ecological Life: Discovering Citizenship and a sense of Humanity. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2006.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Written as a series of lectures, The Ecological Life offers a humanistic perspective on environmental philosophy that challenges some of the dogmas of deep ecology and radical environmentalism while speaking for their best desires. The book argues that being human-centered leaves us open to ecological identifications, rather than the opposite. Bendik-Keymer draws on analytic and continental traditions of philosophy as well as literature and visual media. He argues for a sense of ecological justice consonant with human rights, and shows how humanistic thinking is committed to deepening respect for life and our ecological orientation. In a clear, jargon-free and conversational tone, The Ecological Life presents a timely and important contribution to civic engagement in an ecological century.
Benjaminsen, Tor, Rick Rohde, Espen Sjaastad, Paul Wisborg, and Tom Lebert. “Land Reform, Range Ecology, and Carrying Capacities in Namaqualand, South Africa.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 96.3(2006): 524-540.
From Abstract: This article is a contribution at the interface of human ecology and political ecology, linking environmental issues to economic constraints, land rights, social justice, and values.
Policymakers and extension services usually see carrying capacity as a purely technical issue. We argue that this is problematic because it gives privilege to environmental sustainability and to one particular
perception of the ideal landscape at the expense of livelihood security and poverty alleviation. It also perpetuates the colonial myth that the private ranch system is an ideal one, independent of disparate production goals and unequal economic opportunities and constraints, and it ignores evidence going back more than half a century that the Namaqualand range is capable of sustaining livestock densities far greater than those recommended. The winners that emerge from the current policy focus on carrying capacity are the few emergent black commercial farmers as well as conservationist interests; the losers are the majority of poor stockowners in the communal areas.
Benton, Ted. Natural Relations: Ecology, Animal Rights and Social Justice. New York, NY: Verso, 1993.
Bjelland, Mark, D. “Until justice and stewardship embrace: or, how a geographer thinks about Brownfield sites.” In Christian Scholar’s Review 31.4(Summer 2002): 393-412.
Blackford, Mansel. “Environmental Justice, Native Rights, Tourism, and Opposition to Military Control: The Case of Kaho’olawe.” Journal of American History. 91.2(2004): 544-571.
Abstract: Discusses environmental movements made by Hawaiians against the use of the Kaho’olawe island in Hawaii as a bombing target range by the U.S. Navy and their struggles to restore the island from the 1960s to 1970s. Establishment of a postcolonial variant of the U.S. environmental justice campaign by native Hawaiians; Description of the island; Importance of the island as a spiritual center and navigation marker to native Hawaiians; Efforts of Elmer Cravalho in leading an initial charge against the navy; Changes in navy policies regarding the use of the island.
Blaikie, Piers, and Joshua Muldavin. “Upstream, Downstream, China, India: The Politics of Environment in the Himalayan Region.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 94.3(2004): 520-548.
Abstract: The Theory of Himalayan Environmental Degradation (THED) since the late 1980s has not been reflected to any degree in
domestic policy agendas of India and China. Here, we make a comparative analysis of the “upstream downstream” debates (which claim that the resource use practices of upstream users have serious detrimental costs to those downstream) in two of the most powerful and populous countries of the HKH region: India and China. We find that the rejection of THED is, on the whole, contradicted but sometimes appropriated by different national players within important political arenas, and in this sense it becomes a discursive pawn in “games of the state.” Parts of the retreat from THED are simply ignored, and others are actively resisted. Set against these discursive maneuvers within domestic politics, the academic “state of the game” has undergone profound changes, shifting away from technically derived and science-led imperatives of environmental management toward issues of plural environmental truths, environmental justice, and hybrid knowledge. However, national debates have taken their individual routes, shaped largely by national political events. Thus, the poststructuralist turn in the social sciences in the academy and in some policy arenas, too—the deconstruction of one grand environmental narrative after another (e.g., deforestation, the wood fuel crisis, overstocking), the faltering claims of positivist science to deliver truth, and growing attacks of uncertainty—all this has had a contingent, but usually peripheral, impact upon national academic, political, and policy agendas in China and India.
Boer, Tom, Manuel Pastor, James Sadd, and Lori Snyder. “Is there Environmental Racism? The Demographics of Hazardous Waste in Los Angeles County.” Social Science Quarterly 78.4(1997): 793- 810.
Abstract: The article assesses the location of treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDF) in Los Angeles County, California, with focus on racism. The study shows that a simple comparison of tracts with and without TSDF reveals statistically significant differences by race and economic status along the lines suggested by the environmental justice proponents. There are also significant differences by industrial land use and manufacturing employment along the lines suggested by critics of the environmental justice concept. In this multivariate model race, along with industrial land use and employment in manufacturing, remains a factor, rising income that has a positive then a negative effect on the probability of
TSDF location. This study is limited in intent and scope, in part because of the analytical design and in part because of limitations inherent in the available data. Despite these limitations this research makes a useful contribution by providing new evidence that race matters in the location of certain environmental risks in at least one important urban area.
Boff, Leonardo. Cry of the earth, cry of the poor. Maryknoll, NY : Orbis, 1997.
Bouma-Prediger, Steven. “Environmental Racism.” In Handbook of US Theologies of Liberation. St. Louis, Chalice Press, 2004.
Bowen, William M. Environmental Justice Through Research-Based Decision-Making. New York, NY: Routledge, 2001.
Bowen, William, and Mark Salling. “Toward Environmental Justice: Spatial Equity in Ohio and Cleveland.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 85.4(1995): 641-664.
Abstract: Focuses on the inequitable impact of environmental hazards on poor and minority communities. Examination of the spatial distributions of toxic industrial pollution and demographic groups in Ohio; Public-policy framework; Research issues in environmental equity.
Bowers, C. A. “The case against John Dewey as an environmental and eco-justice philosopher.” In Environmental Ethics 25.1(Spring 2003): 25-42.
_.“Challenges in Educating for Ecologically Sustainable Commmunities.” Educational Philosophy and Theory 33.2(2001): 257-265.
Abstract: Discusses environmental education in the context of high- status knowledge and an eco-justice pedagogy and curriculum.
Reproduction of earlier forms of cultural intelligence by metaphorical nature of language; Cultural aspects of intelligence and creativity;
Moral templates of culture; Awareness of ecologically destructive cultural patterns.
_. Educating for Eco-Justice and Community. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2001.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Bowers outlines a strategy for educational reform that confronts the rapid degradation of our ecosystems by renewing the face-to-face, intergenerational traditions that can serve as alternatives to our hyper-consumerist, technology- driven worldview. Bowers explains how current technological and progressive programs of educational reform operate on deep cultural assumptions that came out of the Enlightenment and led to the Industrial Revolution. These beliefs frame our relationship with nature in adversarial terms, view progress as inevitable, and elevate the individual over community, expertise over intergenerational knowledge, and profit over reciprocity. By making eco-justice a priority of educational reform, we can begin to: democratize developments in science and technology in ways that eliminate eco- racism; reverse the global processes that are worsening the economic and political inequities between the hemispheres; expose the cultural forces that turn aspects of daily life—from education and entertainment to work and leisure—into market-dependent relationships; uplift knowledge and traditions of intergenerationally connected communities; and develop a sense of moral responsibility for the long-term consequences of our excessive material demands.
Boyce, James and Barry Shelley. Natural Assets: Democratizing Environmental Ownership. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2003.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Low-income communities frequently suffer from a lack of access to, or lack of control over, the natural resources that surround them. In many cases, their local environment has been degraded by years of resource extraction and pollution by distant corporations or government agencies. In such settings, initiatives that build natural assets in the hands of the poor can play an important role in poverty-fighting efforts. Natural Assets explores a range of strategies for expanding the quantity and enhancing the quality of natural assets in the hands of low-income individuals and communities
Boyce, James K., Sunita Narain, and Elizabeth Stanton, eds. Reclaiming Nature: Environmental Justice and Ecological Restoration. London, UK: Anthem Press, 2007.
Brand, Peter. Urban Environmentalism, Global Change and the Mediation of Local Conflict. New York, NY: Routledge, 2005.
Abstract: (From Publisher) This book enquires into why cities have embraced environmental issues with enthusiasm. It locates urban environmentalism within current debates on globalization and neoliberal urbanization, and critically outlines the political success of urban environmental agendas in the postmodern condition of risk and individualization. These themes are subjected to theoretical critique and methodological exploration through Marxistanalysis, discourse theory and a dialectical or relation understanding of urban environmentalism within the disruptive and often violent urban transformation of the last two decades. This approach is then applied through three in-depth second-city studies in contrasting development contexts: Birmingham in the UK, Lodz in Poland, and Medellin in Colombia.
Bratton, Susan Power. “Lopsided Justice and Eco-Realities for Women.” In CTNS Bulletin 16(Spring 1996): 18-27.
Bryant, Bunyan, ed. Environmental Justice: Issues, Policies, and Solutions. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1995.
Abstract (From Publisher): In Environmental Justice, leading thinkers of the environmental justice movement take a direct look at the failure of “top down” public policy to effectively deal with issues of environmental equity. The book provides a startling look at pressing social and environmental problems and charts a course for future action. Among the topics considered are: the history of the social justice movement; the role of the professional in working with community groups; methods of dealing with environmental problems at the international level; participatory national policy for environmental education, energy, industrial development, and housing and sustainable development. Contributors include Robert
Bullard, Deeohn Ferris, Tom B.K. Goldtooth, David Hahn-Baker, Beverly Wright, Ivette Perfecto, Patrick West, and others.
Bührig, Marga. “Issues of justice, peace and the integrity of creation.” In
Ecumenical Review 41(1989): 489-602.
Bullard, Robert. Ed. Growing Smarter: Achieving Livable Communities, Environmental Justice, and Regional Equity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007.
Abstract: From Publisher. The contributors to Growing Smarter– urban planners, sociologists, economists, educators, lawyers, health professionals, and environmentalists–all place equity at the center of their analyses of “place, space, and race.” They consider such topics as the social and environmental effects of sprawl, the relationship between sprawl and concentrated poverty, and community-based regionalism that can link cities and suburbs. They examine specific cases that illustrate opportunities for integrating environmental justice concerns into smart growth efforts, including the dynamics of sprawl in a South Carolina county, the debate over the rebuilding of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, and transportation-related pollution in Northern Manhattan. Growing Smarter illuminates the growing racial and class divisions in metropolitan areas today–and suggests workable strategies to address them.
_. Ed. The Quest for Environmental Justice: Human Rights and the Politics of Pollution. San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books, 2005.
Abstract: (From Publisher) In 1994, Sierra Club Books was proud to publish Dr. Robert D. Bullard’s Unequal Protection: Environmental Justice and Communities of Color, a collection of essays contributed by some of the leading participants in the First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, which focused attention on “environmental racism”–racial discrimination in environmental policymaking and the enforcement of environmental protection laws and regulations. Now, picking up where that groundbreaking anthology left off, Dr. Bullard has assembled a new collection of essays that capture the voices of frontline warriors who are battling environmental injustice and human rights abuses at the grassroots
level around the world and challenging government and industry policies and globalization trends that place people of color and the poor at special risk. Part I presents an overview of the early environmental justice movement and highlights key leadership roles assumed by women activists. Part II examines the lives of people living in “sacrifice zones”–toxic corridors (such as Louisiana’s infamous “Cancer Alley”) where high concentrations of polluting industries are found. Part III explores land use, land rights, resource extraction, and sustainable development conflicts, including Chicano struggles in America’s Southwest. Part IV examines human rights and global justice issues, including an analysis of South Africa’s legacy of environmental racism and the corruption and continuing violence plaguing the oil-rich Niger delta.
_. “Environmental Justice: It’s More Than Waste Facility Siting.”
Social Science Quarterly 77.3(1996): 493-499.
Abstract: Comments on the article `Reexamining Environmental Justice: A Statistical Analysis of Historical Hazardous Waste Landfill Siting Patterns in Metropolitan Texas,’ by Tracy Yandle and Dudley Burton from the September, 1996 issue of the periodical
`Social Science Quarterly.’ Erroneous assumptions and false generalizations made by the authors regarding environmental justice; Principles of environmental justice.
_. Ed. Unequal Protection: Environmental Justice and Communities of Color. San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club, 1994.
Bullard, Robert D., and Glenn Johnson. “Environmental Justice: Grassroots Activism and Its Impact on Public Policy Decision Making.” Journal of Social Issues 56.3(2000): 555-578.
Abstract: A growing body of evidence reveals that people of color and low-income persons have borne greater environmental and health risks than the society at large in their neighborhoods, workplace, and playgrounds. Over the last decade or so, grassroots activists have attempted to change the way government implements environmental, health, and civil rights laws. Grassroots groups have organized, educated, and empowered themselves to improve the way
government regulations and environmental policies are administered. A new movement emerged in opposition to environmental racism and environmental injustice. Over the last 2 decades or so, grassroots activists have had some success in changing the way the federal government treats communities of color and their inhabitants.
Grassroots groups have also organized, educated, and empowered themselves to improve the way health and environmental policies are administered. Environmentalism is now equated with social justice and civil rights.
Burbank, James. “Can eco-justice go mainstream?” National Catholic Reporter 33.1(06/06/97): 4-6.
Abstract: Focuses on ecotheology and the efforts of New Mexico Catholic and Protestant leaders in formulating ways to move concerns on ecological crisis to the center of Christian rule and practice. Details on the crimes against creation; Information on Charles E. Little, head of the National Resources Policy Group; Views of John Haught, a Catholic theologian on the recovery of religious vision.
Byrne, John, Leigh Glover, and Cecilia Martinez. Environmental Justice: International Discourses in Political Economy, Energy and Environmental Policy. Edison, NJ: Transaction, 2002.
Abstract: (From the Publisher) Environmental injustice is examined across a variety of cultures in the developed and developing world. Through case studies of climate colonialism, revolutionary ecology, and environmental commodification, the global and local dimensions of the problem are presented. The latest volume in this important series demonstrates that environmental justice cannot be reduced to simple parables of indifference, prejudice, or appropriation. It forges understanding of environmental injustice as a development of international political economy itself. Likewise, initiatives on behalf of environmental justice are seen as elements of broader movements to secure self-determination in a globalizing world. This book will be of interest to policymakers, energy and environmental experts, and all those interested in the environment and environmental law. It provides new perspectives on the place of environmental justice in international political and economic conflict.
Cain, Clifford. “Regarding nature as thou : a reorientation toward eco- justice.” In Encounter, 52(Wint 1991): 21-32.
Camacho, David, and Maria Bueno. Environmental Injustices, Political Struggles: Race, Class and the Environment. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1998.
Abstract (From Publisher): In the United States, few issues are more socially divisive than the location of hazardous waste facilities and other environmentally harmful enterprises. Do the negative impacts of such polluters fall disproportionately on African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian Americans? Environmental Injustices, Political Struggles discusses how political, economic, social, and cultural factors contribute to local government officials’ consistent location of hazardous and toxic waste facilities in low- income neighborhoods and how, as a result, low-income groups suffer disproportionately from the regressive impacts of environmental policy. David E. Camacho’s collection of essays examines the value-laden choices behind the public policy that determines placement of commercial environmental hazards, points to the underrepresentation of people of color in the policymaking process, and discusses the lack of public advocates representing low- income neighborhoods and communities. This book combines empirical evidence and case studies—from the failure to provide basic services to the “colonias” in El Paso County, Texas, to the race for water in Nevada—and covers in great detail the environmental dangers posed to minority communities, including the largely unexamined communities of Native Americans. The contributors call for cooperation between national environmental interest groups and local grassroots activism, more effective incentives and disincentives for polluters, and the adoption by policymakers of an alternative, rather than privileged, perspective that is more sensitive to the causes and consequences of environmental inequities. Environmental Injustices, Political Struggles is a unique collection for those interested in the environment, public policy, and civil rights as well as for students and scholars of political science, race and ethnicity, and urban and regional planning.
Checker, Milissa. “Like Nixon Coming to China: Finding Common Ground in a Multi-Ethnic Coalition for Environmental Justice.” Anthropological Quarterly 74.3(2001): 135-146.
Abstract: This article uses ethnographic fieldwork to illustrate how a multi-ethnic group of activists in Brooklyn, New York, formed a coalition for environmental justice in their neighborhood. Until the late 1980s local activists had organized in separate and antagonistic movements, competing over access to housing, schools, and police protection. However, as they increasingly realized that the environment was an urban concern, and was subject to discrimination, activists added it to their organizing agendas. In so doing, activists began to construct an expansive environmental narrative that cast all minorities in the neighborhood as united in the face of disproportionately high pollution rates. Activists thus found that they could enhance their environmental struggles by creating environmental identities that superseded rigidly defined identities based on ethnicity. Through organizing for environmental justice, activists redefined the meaning and significance of ethnic differences.
_. Polluted Promises: Environmental Racism and the Search for Justice in a Southern Town. New York, NY: New York University Press, 2005.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Over the past two decades, environmental racism has become the rallying cry for many communities as they discover the contaminations of toxic chemicals and industrial waste in their own backyards. Living next door to factories and industrial sites for years, the people in these communities often have record health problems and debilitating medical conditions. Melissa Checker tells the story of one such neighborhood, Hyde Park, in Augusta, Georgia, and the tenacious activism of its two hundred African American families. This community, at one time surrounded by nine polluting industries, is struggling to make their voices heard and their community safe again. Polluted Promises shows that even in the post-civil rights era, race and class are still key factors in determining the politics of pollution.
Christiansen, Drew. “Ecology, Justice, and Development.” In Theological Studies 51.1(March 1990): 64-82.,
Abstract: Examines the relationship between global environmental problems and economic development. Parallels between ecological movements and Catholic teaching; Focus of Pope John Paul II’s encyclical letter `Sollicitudo rei socialis’; Ecological dimensions of development; Objectives of the deep ecology movement.
_. “Moral theology, ecology, justice, and development.” In Covenant for a new creation. Carol S. Robb and Carl Casebolt, eds. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1991: 251-271.
Church and Society. “For the Beauty of the Earth : Restoring Creation for Ecology and Justice.” 86(Jl-Ag 1996): 1-152.
Abstract: Special issue on eco-justice.
Clarke, Chris. “Defending mother earth: Native American perspectives on environmental justice” In Ecotheology 7(July 1999): 118-120.
Clayton, Susan. “Models of Justice in the Environmental Debate.” Journal of Social Issues 56.3(2000): 459-474.
Abstract: Justice has become important in public and private consideration of the environment, but a number of different ways of operationalizing justice can be seen. Previous literature suggests that principles stressing responsibility and the public good are more common than need and equity in thinking about environmental issues. The results from two questionnaire studies, presented here, confirm that environmental justice–responsibility to other species and to future generations, and the rights of the environment–emerges as the most highly rated consideration in resolving environmental conflicts and that this factor is distinct from traditional procedural and distributive justice factors. Highlighting the individual or the collective makes different justice principles salient but that the effect depends on one’s original position.
Cole, Luke and Shelia Foster. From the Ground Up: Environmental Racism and the Rise of the Environmental Justice Movement. Albany, NY: New York University Press, 2000.
Abstract: (From the Publisher) When Bill Clinton signed an
Executive Order on Environmental Justice in 1994, the phenomenon of environmental racism–the disproportionate impact of environmental hazards, particularly toxic waste dumps and polluting factories, on people of color and low-income communities–gained unprecedented recognition. Behind the President’s signature, however, lies a remarkable tale of grassroots activism and political mobilization. Today, thousands of activists in hundreds of locales are fighting for their children, their communities, their quality of life, and their health. From the Ground Up critically examines one of the fastest growing social movements in the United States, the movement for environmental justice. Tracing the movement’s roots, Luke Cole and Sheila Foster combine long-time activism with powerful storytelling to provide gripping case studies of communities across the U.S–towns like Kettleman City, California; Chester, Pennsylvania; and Dilkon, Arizona–and their struggles against corporate polluters. The authors effectively use social, economic and legal analysis to illustrate the historical and contemporary causes for environmental racism. Environmental justice struggles, they demonstrate, transform individuals, communities, institutions and even the nation as a whole.
Corburn, Jason. Street Science: Community Knowledge and Environmental Health Justice. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005.
Abstract: (From Publisher) When environmental health problems arise in a community, policymakers must be able to reconcile the first-hand experience of local residents with recommendations by scientists. In this highly original look at environmental health policymaking, Jason Corburn shows the ways that local knowledge can be combined with professional techniques to achieve better solutions for environmental health problems. He traces the efforts of a low-income community in Brooklyn to deal with health problems in its midst and offers a framework for understanding “street science” – decision making that draws on community knowledge and contributes to environmental justice.
Coward, Harold G. and Daniel Maguire, eds. Visions of a new earth: religious perspectives on population, consumption, and ecology. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2000.
Daniels, Glynis, and Samantha Friedman. “Spatial Inequality and the Distribution of Industrial Toxic Waste.” Social Science Quarterly 80.2 (1999): 244-263.
Abstract: The article presents information on spatial inequality and the distribution of industrial toxic releases. This research investigates environmental justice activists’ claims that pollution is unevenly distributed across communities in the United States. One examines three possible explanations for environmental inequity: racial discrimination, economic stratification and urban ecology. Since the highly publicized Love Canal scandal 1978, antitoxic movements have proliferated in the United States. At first these movements focused on single, local issues, but in recent years formerly isolated groups have started to form larger networks. As a result, activists have begun to reframe toxic exposure issues using the concept of environmental justice. This new macro-level perspective provides a foundation for the claim that not only is exposure to risk from toxics unevenly distributed across the population, but it actually discriminates against disadvantaged groups, particularly racial minorities and the lower classes.
Deane-Drummond, Celia. “Environmental Justice and the Economy: A Christian Theologian’s View.” Ecotheology: Journal of Religion, Nature & the Environment. 11.3(2006): 294-310.
From Abstract: This article presents the case for a Christian understanding of justice as one that is inclusive of environmental issues. I concentrate, in particular, on economic market practices that serve to exacerbate environmental harms. Justice has commonly been considered in the first place as a value principle that is more often than not confined to the human community. I argue in the second place for the relevance of a Christian understanding of the virtues, incorporating the classic tradition of justice understood as a virtue alongside prudence and temperance. The first, principled approach, opens up the possibility of a critical discussion of Rawls’ theory of justice in relation to the concerns of environmental justice movements and the need for further broadening out into ecological justice. The second, virtue approach, opens up the need to take into account Christian concern for the poor and mediating economic strategies that demonstrate how the cardinal virtues of prudence,
justice and temperance can, together, be expressed in practi-cal terms prior to more radical and more idealistic revisions in the global economy.
_. “Wisdom, Justice and Environmental Decision-Making in a Biotechnological Age.” Ecotheology: Journal of Religion, Nature and the Environment. 8.2(2003): 173-192.
Abstract: This article explores the way we make environmental decisions, especially in the context of heavily contested issues such as Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). It suggests that as well as attention to particular consequences of action, due consideration needs to be given to the motivation and attitudes of the agents concerned, in other words, to virtue ethics. The values behind environmental decision-making are predicated on religious as well as philosophical assumptions. I argue that not only is it important to identify religious mandates for environmental action, through models such as that of kinship, but also that exploring the wisdom tradition from a Christian perspective can serve to clarify ways forward where decision making is difficult. In the Christian community itself a recovery of wisdom and justice, as virtues, can serve to raise the importance of environmental concern, since it is rooted in an understanding of God as creator and the idea of natural law. The concept of justice complements that of wisdom in that it facilitates an objective stance according to certain principles of equity.
Derezinski, D., M. Lacy, and P. Stretesky. “Chemical Accidents in the United States, 1990-1996. In Social Science Quarterly 84.1(March 2003): 122-143.
Abstract: Much of the empirical work on environmental justice centers on the geographic distribution of potential chronic health risks (e.g., planned toxic releases or treatment storage and disposal facilities). Far less attention has been devoted to the geographic distribution of acute health risks that cause immediate harm. The purpose of this work is to examine environmental justice in terms of potential acute health risks by examining the distribution of serious chemical accidents across diverse subpopulations.
Diefenbacher, Hans. “Environmental Justice: Some Starting Points for Discussion from a Perspective of Ecological Economics.” Ecotheology: Journal of Religion, Nature & the Environment.
From Abstract: This article discusses ecological justice from the perspective of ecological economics. It departs from two questions: How to apply justice in a model of economy? How to connect economy and ecology? The classical neolib-eral economy does not include human and social values and it fails to reflect the natural dimension. While the contemporary neoliberal economy produces costs, which are not paid, increasing problems of injustice are produced constantly. If we do not want to let future generations pay, we need to find intelligent limits to our economic system. How can we develop the concept of ecological justice as a guiding principle for global governance, through which we could perceive and integrate the limits of economy in a constructive manner?
Dobson, Andrew. Ed. Fairness and Futurity: Essays on Environmental Sustainability and Social Justice. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Fairness and Futurity: Essays on Environmental Sustainability and Social Justice brings together leading international figures in political theory and sociology, as well as representatives from the political community, to consider the normative issues at stake in the relationship between environmental sustainability and social justice. It raises important questions and sets out to provide the answers. If future generations are owed justice, what should we bequeath them? Is `sustainability’ an appropriate medium for environmentalists to express their demands? Is environmental protection compatible with intra- generational justice? Is environmental sustainability a luxury when social peace has broken down? These essays emerged from three intensive seminars that involved participants in constant re-evaluations of their work, and which bought three distinct groups–environmental theorists,
`mainstream’ political theorists, and policy community members–into fruitful contact. In particular, the attempt to involve `mainstream’ theorists in environmental questions, and to encourage environmentalists to use intellectual resources of political theory, should be highlighted.
_. Justice and the Environment: Conceptions of Environmental Sustainability and Theories of Distributive Justice. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Environmental sustainability and social, or distributive, justice are both widely regarded as desirable social objectives. But can we assume that they are compatible with each other? In this path- breaking study, Professor Dobson, a leading expert on environmental politics, analyses the complex relationship between these two pressing objectives. Environmental sustainability is taken to be a contested idea, and three distinct conceptions of it are described and explored. These conceptions are then examined in the context of fundamental distributive questions such as: Among whom or what should distribution take place?
What should be distributed? What should the principle of distribution be? The author critically examines the claims of the `environmental justice’ and `sustainable development’ movements that social justice and environmental sustainability are points on the same virtuous circle, and concludes that radical environmental demands are only incompletely served by couching them in terms of justice.
Dore, Mohammed H.I., and Timothy D. Mount. Global Environmental Economics: Equity and the Limits to Markets. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1999.
Abstract: (From Publisher) By focusing on the implications for future generations and the people of developing countries, the editors seek to provide an alternative to standard approaches that focus on the short run solutions consumers or markets are willing to support. The work also illustrates that new developments in social choice theory offer a better foundation than traditional welfare economics.Upon perceiving the need for a fresh orientation toward global environmental issues, the editors organized an international conference at Cornell University to study the equity dimension. This collection is the result of the conference and represents the collaboration of economists, ethicists, political scientists, demographers and ecologists.Global Environmental Economics: Equity and the Limits to Markets illustrates that the issues of equity can be applied to global environmental problems as well as take a more central role in economic theory.
Downey, Liam. “Environmental Injustice: Is Race or Income a Better Predictor?” Social Science Quarterly 79.4(1998): 766-778.
Abstract: Investigates the distribution of Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) emissions in Michigan in an attempt to ascertain whether these emissions are inequitably distributed according to race. Alternative definitions of environmental racism; Argument of environmental justice researchers that it must be possible to predict the presence of environmental hazards based on race.
Dunion, Kevin. Troublemakers : The struggle for environmental justice in Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press, 2003.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Troublemakers is a provocative argument from prominent environmentalist Kevin Dunion for a sustained challenge to environmental injustice in Scotland. Pollution, disturbance and fears of ill-health affect the daily life of many Scots, particularly from the most disadvantaged or vulnerable groups in society. They are expected to put up with unnecessary risk and a lower quality of life. Groups who attempt to speak up in defence of their communities are often marginalised by government, industry and regulatory bodies. They find themselves branded as ‘troublemakers’.
Ebbesson, Jonas. Access to Justice in Environmental Matters in the EU. New York, NY: Aspen Publishers, 2002.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Access to justice in environmental matters has been a topic for increasing legal discourse and law- making in international, European Community (EC) and national arenas. The 1998 Aarhus Convention provides new norms of international law, inspired by the 1992 Rio Declaration. EC law on access to justice is being drafted and changes can be observed in the laws of the European Union (EU) members states. This timely book presents the state-of-the-art of access to justice in environmental matters in the European Union. It provides a thematic and comparative introduction of the topic, followed by thorough descriptions of EC law and the law of each EU member state. The chapters are written in English or French with a summary in the other language.
Engel, J. R. “The Post-World War II Eco-Justice Movement in Christian Theology: Patterns and Issues.” In American Journal of Theology & Philosophy, 18.1(Ja 1997): 9-19.
_. “Teaching the eco-justice ethic: The parable of the Billerica Dam.” Christian Century, 104.16(5/13/87): p466-470.
Abstract: Examines Henry David Thoreau’s analogy between the human struggle for liberation and nature’s struggle for fulfillment, and applies it to life today. Thoreau’s book, `A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers’; Public parables; Billerica Dam.
Englel, J. Ronald, Joan Gibb Engel, and Peter Bakken, eds. Ecology, Justice and Christian Faith: A Critical Guide to the Literature. Portsmouth, NH: Greenwood Press, 1995.
Abstract: A comprehensive and critical overview of Christian perspectives on the relationship between social justice and ecological integrity. This annotated bibliography focuses on works that include ecological issues, social-ethical values and problems, and explicitly theological or religious reflection on ecological and social ethics and their interrelations. The work is comprised of an introductory review essay followed by over 500 complete annotations.
Environmental Justice Quarterly. A Quarterly publication by the US Environmental Protection Agency. 2002-Present, available online at: http://www.epa.gov/compliance/resources/newsletters/ej/ej- newsletters.html.
Faber, Daniel Richard. Ed. The Struggle for Ecological Democracy: Environmental Justice Movements in the United States. New York, NY: The Guilford Press, 1998.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Illuminating manifold connections between the exploitation of nature and the exploitation of vulnerable communities, a new wave of grassroots environmentalism is building in the United States. Groups that have traditionally been at the periphery of mainstream environmentalism–poor people, working people, and people of color–are fusing the fight for a healthy environment with historical struggles for civil rights and social
justice. This timely book brings together leading scholars and activists to provide an ecosocialist perspective on the goals, strategies, and accomplishments of the environmental justice movement, and to explore the emerging principles of ecological democracy that undergird it.
Faramelli, Norman. “Eco-justice and the church.” Christian Ministry.
_. “Role of the church in eco-justice.” Church & Society, 64(N- D 1973): p 4-15.
_. “Ecological responsibility and economic justice : the perilous links between ecology and poverty.” Andover Newton Quarterly.
Fernandes, Walter, ed. “Environment and north-south relations.” In Social Action 42(1992): 111-200.
Fernando, Jude. Rethinking Sustainable Development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2003.
Field, David. “Ecology, Modernity and the New South Africa : Towards a South African Theology of Eco-Justice.” In Journal of African Christian Thought, 2.1(Je 1999): 45-53.
Fletcher, Thomas. From Love Canal to Environmental Justice: The Politics of Hazardous Waste on the Canada-US Border.
Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview, 2003.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Tracing the history of environmental policy and politics from the seminal moments of 1978 at Love Canal to current environmental justice disputes, this in-depth study offers a cross-border analysis of the modern environmental movement that should be of interest to students and practitioners, academics and activists. Though no explicit environmental justice movement has developed in Canada, questions of fairness and equity in issues like the recent Toronto garbage crisis are central to many of the country’s environmental conflicts. The location of Love Canal and other hazardous waste facilities on the New York-Ontario border allows for striking national comparisons without sacrificing attention to local and regional detail. Just as the issues surrounding Love Canal have
shaped environmental management many years after the event, so too the environmental justice movement is making its mark on contemporary policy and politics in ways that we are likely to recognize many years from now.
Foreman, Christopher. The Promise and Peril of Environmental Justice.
Washington, DC: 1998.
Abstract: (From the Publisher) Are we environmentally victimizing, perhaps even poisoning, our minority and low-income citizens?
Proponents of “environmental justice” assert that environmental decisionmaking pays insufficient heed to the interests of those citizens, disproportionately burdens their neighborhoods with hazardous toxins, and perpetuates an insidious “environmental racism.” In the first book-length critique of environmental justice advocacy, Christopher Foreman argues that it has cleared significant political hurdles but displays substantial limitations and drawbacks. Activism has yielded a presidential executive order, management reforms at the Environmental Protection Agency, and numerous local political victories. Yet the environmental justice movement is structurally and ideologically unable to generate a focused policy agenda. The movement refuses to confront the need for environmental priorities and trade-offs, politically inconvenient facts about environmental health risks, and the limits of an environmental approach to social justice. Ironically, environmental justice advocacy may also threaten the very constituencies it aspires to serve– distracting attention from the many significant health hazards challenging minority and disadvantaged populations. Foreman recommends specific institutional reforms intended to recast the national dialogue about the stakes of these populations in environmental protection.
Gandy, Matthew. “Between Borinquen and the Barrio: Environmental Justice and New York City’s Puerto Rican Community.” In Antipode 34.4(2002): 730-762.
Abstract: The last decade has seen an upsurge of both scholarly and popular interest in the US environmental justice movement. What is largely missing from this contemporary discussion is any sense of the
historical roots of this new wave of environmental activism. This paper explores the emergence of a radical Puerto Rican organization called the Young Lords that was active in a number of US cities in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
Gardner, Morgan. Linking Activism: Ecology, Social Justice, and Education for Social Change. New York, NY: Routledge, 2005.
Gay, Kathlyn. Pollution and the Powerless: The Environmental Justice Movement. London, UK: Franklin Watts, 1995.
NB: Children’s book on Environmental Justice.
Gerrard, Michael. The Law of Environmental Justice. Chicago, IL: The American Bar Association, 1999.
Abstract: (From Publisher) The Law of Environmental Justice is a one-volume treatise on the environmental uses of the Equal Protection Clause, Title VI and other portions of the Civil Rights Act, Executive Order 12898, and state and tribal laws. The book addresses stopping or building new facilities; controlling, cleaning up or redeveloping old facilities; controlling residential and occupational exposure; and assisting injured individuals. Legal issues in public participation, access to information and to the courts, impact and risk assessment, evidence, and legal ethics are also analyzed.
Gibson, William E., ed. Eco-Justice: The Unfinished Story. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2004.
_. “Strengthening the web: Where do we go from here?”
Network News 14.1(Winter 1994): 3-6.
Abstract: Focuses on the destructive effects on the environment of human beings’ pursuit of development and progress. Ethos of expansion and consumption; Signs that some people are driven towards consuming everything that can be consumed; Role of faith communities in changing destructive beliefs and policies; Nature as a victim of oppression; Meaning of eco-justice.
_. “Ecojustice : burning word; Heilbroner and Jeremiah to the church.” Foundations, 20.5(O-D 1977): 318-328.
Abstract: This article points to the church’s response to the “eco- justice crisis” as a test of faithfulness. The crisis is compounded of ecological peril and distributive injustice. Robert Heilbroner provides an accurate analysis and a pessimistic prognosis, which in the perspective of the prophetic words of Jeremiah become God’s burning call for repentance and change. The church can offer a critique of the suicidal mania for economic growth, and a vision of a just and sustainable global community. In response to the gospel some will discover spiritual resources for the self-abnegation that frees them to let go of present privileges.
Gillroy, John Martin. Justice and Nature: Kantian Philosophy, Environmental Policy, and the Law. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2001.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Most decision making in environmental policy today is based on the economic cost-benefit argument.
Criticizing the shortcomings of the market paradigm, John Martin Gillroy proposes an alternative way to conceptualize and create environmental policy, one that allows for the protection of moral and ecological values in the face of economic demands. Drawing on Kantian definitions of who we are as citizens, how we act collectively, and what the proper role of the state is, Gillroy develops a philosophical justification for incorporating non-market values into public decision making. His new paradigm for justice toward nature integrates the intrinsic value of humanity and nature into the law. To test the feasibility of this new approach, Gillroy applies it to six cases: wilderness preservation, national wildlife refuges, not-in-my- backyard (NIMBY) siting dilemmas, comparative risk analysis, the Food and Drug Administration’s risk regulation, and the National Environmental Policy Act. He also encourages others to adapt his framework to create alternative policy models from existing philosophies.
Girdner, Eddie, and Jack Smith. Killing Me Softly: Toxic Waste, Corporate Profit, and the Struggle for Environmental Justice. New York, NY: Mothly Review Press, 2002.
Glave Dianne and Mark Stoll. To Love the Wind and the Rain: African Americans and Environmental History. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2005.
Abstract: (From Publisher) The essays in “To Love the Wind and the Rain” focus on three major themes in connection to African Americans: the rural environment; the urban and suburban environments; and the notion of environmental justice. Meticulous in their research, the contributors cover such subjects as slavery, hunting, gardening, religion, women, and politics. In the foreword, Carolyn Merchant says, “The stories of the African Americans in this volume must be read in the context of the enormity of this oppressive history and the struggles of individuals and communities to overcome its consequences.” According to Merchant, the essays “not only show us how to write a new kind of African American environmental history, but illustrate the ways that writing history can itself become a moral act.”
Gleeson, Brendan, and Nicholas Low, eds. Governing for the Environment: Global Problems, Ethics and Democracy. New York, NY: Palgrave, 2001.
Abstract: (From Publisher) This edited volume explores one of the dimensions of the value-knowledge system needed in any movement towards humane governance for the planet: the ecological sustainability and integrity of the Earth’s environment. The book begins from the premise that whilst environmental knowledge and values have developed rapidly, their development must not overwhelm consideration of other core ‘humane’ values: peace, social justice, and human rights. The book’s contributors explore a variety of ethical issues that must inform future global regulation of the Earth’s environment.
Gnanadason, Aruna. “YES, CREATOR GOD, TRANSFORM THE
EARTH!” Ecumenical Review. 57.2(2005): 159-170.
Abstract: Discusses the earth as God’s body in an age of environmental violence. Background on the concepts developed by ethicist theologian Larry Rasmussen regarding ecumenical earth and
earth ethics based on an earth community as an essential theological principle; Contribution of the World Council of Churches to address various environmental problems; Impact of industrialization and the profligate use of resources on the quality of life of women.
Gorringe, Timothy. A Theology of the Built Environment: Justice, Empowerment, Redemption. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Gosling, David. A New Earth: Covenanting for Justice, Peace and the Integrity of Creation. London, UK: Council of Churches for Britain & Ireland, 1992.
Gottlieb, Roger. Environmentalism Unbound: Exploring New Pathways for Change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002.
Abstract: (From Publisher) In Environmentalism Unbound, Robert Gottlieb proposes a new strategy for social and environmental change that involves reframing and linking the movements for environmental justice and pollution prevention. According to Gottlieb, the environmental movement’s narrow conception of environment has isolated it from vital issues of everyday life, such as workplace safety, healthy communities, and food security, that are often viewed separately as industrial, community, or agricultural concerns. This fragmented approach prevents an awareness of how these issues are also environmental issues. After tracing a history of environmental perspectives on land and resources, city and countryside, and work and industry, Gottlieb focuses on three compelling examples of this new approach to social and environmental change. The first involves a small industry (dry cleaning) and the debate over pollution prevention approaches; the second involves a set of products (janitorial cleaning supplies) that may be hazardous to workers; and the third explores the obstacles and opportunities presented by community or regional approaches to food supply in the face of an increasingly globalized food system.
Grazer, Walter E. “Environmental Justice: A Catholic Voice.” America
190.2(January 2004): 12-15.
Abstract: Reports on the participation of Catholic institutions across the U.S. in environmental justice programs and activities in 2004.
Issuance of a major pastoral reflection on the Columbia River from the bishops in the Northwest; Effort of diocese in Florida to urge community-wide efforts to protect limited water supplies; Details of the church’s contribution to the environmental debate; Views on environmental justice.
Grey, Mary. “Cosmic Communion: A Contemporary Reflection on the Eucharistive Vision of Teilhard de Chardin.” Ecotheology: Journal of Religion, Nature & the Environment. 10.2(2005):165-180.
Abstract: One of the most poetic expressions of Teilhard de Chardin’s Christic mysticism is found in his Mass on the World, and other eucharistic texts. But of what value could they be today, given their over-optimistic tone, in a world where the very future of the earth is at stake? In a context where his work is frequently set aside, by emphasizing the role of the Holy Spirit, this article tries to reclaim Père Teilhard’s eucharistic vision as part of a contemporary movement of reconversion to the earth and the dedication to ecological justice of the Christian community.
Hallman, David. Ecotheology : voices from South and North. Geneva: WCC Publications, 1994.
Hancock, Jan. Environmental Human Rights: Power, Ethics, and Law.
Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2003.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Environmental Human Rights redefines the political, ethical and legal relationships between the environment and human rights to claim the human rights to an environment free from toxic pollution and to natural resources. Through a focus on the operational dynamics of social power, this compelling book details how global capitalism subjugates concerns of human security and environmental protection to the values of allocative efficiency and economic growth. The capacity of social power to construct ethical norms and to determine the efficacy of law is examined to explain how ethical and legal concepts have been selectively applied to accommodate existing patterns of production, consumption and exchange that cause environmental degradation and human rights
violations. By looking at how environmental values have been systematically excluded from the human rights discourse, the book claims that human rights politics and law has been constructed on double standards to accommodate the destructive forces of capitalism.
Harvey, Graham. “Environmentalism in the Construction of Indigeneity.” In Ecotheology: Journal of Religion, Nature and the Environment. 8.2(2003): 206-223.
Abstract: Environmentalism has been a major aspect of the construction of indigenous identities. Understood broadly, this might always have been true in the sense that indigenous elders have attempted to inculcate respectful engagement with ‘all our relations’ and demonstrated methods for tending the lands in which people have lived. It is also true of the European construction of indigenous ‘others’ as either ‘noble savages’ or ‘ignoble savages’ dwelling in ‘paradise’ or ‘wilderness’. Recently this debate has focused on whether indigenous people before European ‘contact’ were ecologically sensitive or damaging. This article is interested in indigenous uses of environmentalism as one part of attempts to gain healthier life and livelihood. It engages with indigenous novels, activism and cosmovisions as an introduction to some of the ways in which better ways of being human alongside ‘all our relations’ might be possible in the future.
Head, Louis and Miguel Guerrero. “Environmental racism and the struggle for justice.” In Witness, 73(Spring 1990): 8-10.
Helfand, Gloria and James Peyton. “A Conceptual Model of Environmental Justice.” Social Science Quarterly 80.1(1999): 68-83.
Abstract: The article presents information about a conceptual model of environmental justice. Much of the literature on environmental inequities focuses on establishing a correlation between poor or minority communities and environmental hazards. However, these studies do not provide much information on the causes of that correlation. The distribution of environmental hazards has received increasing attention in recent years. While correlations are important tools for identifying the existence of a problem, determining the
cause of the problem requires further analysis. First, a null hypothesis must be developed of how environmental risks would be distributed in the absence of discriminatory or other unjust practices. Then a framework must be developed to permit testing of alternative hypotheses for causes of disparities in environmental exposures. This paper develops a conceptual model of the roles of individuals, community decision-makers and industry in the sitting of facilities that produce hazardous by-products. This framework can be used to develop testable hypotheses on sources of the unequal distribution of environmental impacts. The paper examines existing studies to determine what lessons can be drawn from them and describes the empirical implications of applying this framework to future studies. It concludes by considering the relations ship between possible causes and the policy options that could be used to address them.
Hessel, Dieter, ed. Theology for Earth community : a field guide.
Maryknoll, NY : Orbis Books, 1996.
_. Ed. After nature’s revolt : eco-justice and theology
Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1992.
_. For Creation’s Sake: Preaching, Ecology, and Justice.
Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 1985.
_. Energy ethics : a Christian response. New York, NY: Friendship, 1978.
Hessel, Dieter and Larry Rasmussen, eds. Earth Habitat: Eco-Injustice and the Church’s Response. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 2001.
Hillman, Mick. “The importance of environmental justice in stream rehabilitation.” Ethics, Place & Environment, 7.1/2(2004): 19-43.
Abstract: New forms of river management have emerged following widespread recognition of the environmental damage caused by attempts to harness and control rivers for navigation, consumptive water use and power generation. A dominant top-down engineering- based paradigm is being challenged by catchment-framed, ecosystem-based approaches which claim to place greater emphasis on participation and equity. However, there has been limited attention given to examining these claims, and principles of justice are frequently left unarticulated or embedded in what is still presented as an essentially technical, outcome-driven management
process. This paper examines the contribution of an environmental justice framework in articulating and explicating the ethical and political nature of decision making in stream rehabilitation practice. Particular attention is given to distributive, procedural and relational elements of justice, and to the limitations of an anthropocentric approach. A broader-based ecological justice framework is proposed. Several key issues in applying this framework are discussed, including the need for ‘situated justice’, for multiple voices to be heard, for dealing with unity and diversity at the catchment scales, and in integrating knowledge through genuine transdisciplinary research and practice.
Hofrichter, Richard, ed. Toxic Struggles: The Theory and Practice of Environmental Justice. BC, Canada: New Society Publishers, 1993.
_. Ed. Reclaiming the Environmental Debate: the Politics of Health in a Toxic Culture. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2000.
Abstract: (From Publisher) n expanding array of hazardous substances poses an increasing threat to public health. But what makes our society a toxic culture are the social arrangements that encourage and excuse the deterioration of human health and the environment. Elements of toxic culture include the unquestioned production of hazardous wastes, economic blight, substandard housing, chronic stress, exploitative working conditions, and dangerous technologies. Toxic culture is also a metaphor for the ways our language, concepts, and values frame debates, ignoring the political conflicts and power relations that influence public health.
Reflecting a diversity of voices and critical perspectives, the essays in this book range from critiques of traditional thinking and practices to strategies for shifting public consciousness to create healthy communities. Rather than emphasize policy reform, medical advances, and individual behavior, the essays stress the causes of ill health associated with the production, use, and disposal of resources and, more important, inequality. The contributors include academics, political activists, and artists. Connecting the essays are a recognition of the political and cultural dynamics that influence public health and a commitment to organize against the powerful interests that perpetuate our toxic culture.
Hooft, Visser’t. Justice to Future Generations and the Environment. New York, NY: Springer, 1999.
Abstract: (From Publisher) This book contributes to the discussion about obligations to future generations by arguing that a principle of justice, according to which we must share the environmental resources of the planet with future generations, must be considered to be part of the just basic structure of society. The argument is based on a close study of Rawls’ theory of justice and particularly of its treatment of the future generations issue. But the author claims that the affirmation of a principle of justice towards future generations must be accompanied by the attempt to articulate the motives that shape a concern with the fate of future persons in the first place. In order to consider, and further, its real chances, we must put the perspective of justice between generations, with its very detached character, within the context of our view from the present such as it is situated in historical time. This opens a fascinating but difficult field of inquiry about inter-generational value and its different aspects.
Although it is centred on the theory of justice and on general ethics, the book also pays attention to the legal issues raised by the notion of a future-oriented just basic structure of society.
Horn, Patricia. “Downwardly Mobile for Conscience Sake: Ten Autobiographical Sketches: Each a Personal Search for Justice, Peace, and Eco-sanity.” In Sojourners, 25(Ja-F 1996): 57-59.
Hossay, Patrick. Unsustainable: A Primer for Global Environmental and Social Justice. London, UK: Zed Books, 2006.
Abstract: (From Publisher) In plain, direct language, Hossay explains the double bind in which humanity now finds itself - an environmental crisis escalating year on year, and a social crisis of poverty and inequality, also growing worse and worse. Aimed at a concerned, popular audience, including both budding social activists and young people studying the environment and international development, the author explains how these crises share the same historical roots. Brilliantly combining a huge amount of up-to-date information, visual charts, and clear explanation, he shows step by step how an historical path of colonialism, capitalist development and industrial growth has got us into this mess. Only a fundamental
restructuring of the way we do business will save us from environmental and human catastrophe, and the book suggests ways in which we can work for such changes.
Hough, Joseph. “Land and people : the eco-justice connection; it is not those who have too little who will destroy the land, it is those few who have too much.” Christian Century, 97(October 1980): 910- 914.
Huebner, Stephen. “Storm Clouds Over the Environmental Horizon.”
Society 36.3(1999): 57-67.
Abstract: Discusses the concept of environmental justice as a political and social movement that emerged in the 1980s in the U.S. Goal of environmental justice; Components of the concern over environmental inequity; Examples of environmental justice cases; Evolution of the definition of environmental justice.
Ishayama, N. “Environmental Justice and American Indian Tribal Sovereignty: Case Study of a Land-Use Conflict in Skull Valley, Utah.” In Antipode 35.1(2003): 119-140.
Abstract: This paper examines environmental justice in the context of questions of American-Indian tribal sovereignty through an analysis of a land-use dispute over the Skull Valley Band of Goshute Indians’ decision to host a high-level radioactive waste facility on their reservation in Tooele County, Utah. The case study entails a far more intricate story than that presented in the majority of existing literature, which is dominated by analytical frameworks of environmental racism and distributive environmental justice. By elucidating the historical geography of Skull Valley and politics of tribal sovereignty, I argue that a prolonged process of historical colonialism has produced a landscape of injustice in which the tribe’s choices have been structurally limited.
Jafta, Lizo. “Eco-human justice and well-being” In Race and reconciliation in South Africa. Edited by William E. Van Vugt and Daan Cloete. New York, NY: Lexington Books, 2000. 171-185.
Johnson, Stephen. Economics, Equity, and the Environment. Washington, DC: Environmental Law Institute, 2004.
Abstract: (From Publisher) This book examines major economic incentive and market-based environmental protection programs that are being implemented by governments, including pollution taxes, pollutant trading programs, regulatory waiver programs, subsidies, grants, loans and favorable tax treatment, and deposit/refund systems. It examines the advantages and disadvantages of each program, with special emphasis on the environmental justice impacts of the programs. Additional chapters in the book examine information disclosure laws, pollution prevention, and cost-benefit analysis, as each of those tools plays a vital role in market-based environmental protection and environmental justice concerns. Economics, Equity, and the Environment is ideally suited for use in environmental law seminars, courses that deal with environmental justice, survey courses, economics and administrative law courses, and environmental law courses in business schools. Each chapter of the book has a theoretical, as well as practical, component, making this book to be of considerable assistance to attorneys in private practice and policymakers.
Jones, Eileen Kerwin. “Weaving Perspectives: An Exploration of Economic Justice Based on the work of Beverly Wildung Harrison and Marilyn Waring.” In Ecotheology: Journal of Religion, Nature, and the Environment 6.1-2(2001/2002): 92-108.
Abstract: In this article, I underline the relevance of economic analysis in Christian social ethical deliberations on issues of justice. I show how connections are made between theological ethics, economics and ecology when Beverly Wildung Harrison, a Christian social feminist ethicist, and Marilyn Waring, a feminist economist, are in dialogue. I demonstrate how Waring’s approach meets the four criteria of Harrison’s adequate social theory, and then suggest that Waring’s economic insights provide critical data for theological reflection. Central to this article is the idea that conventional economic emphasis on the market presents only a partial analysis of the economy; it omits significant data, such as the work performed in the informal sector (work done mostly by women), and any costs due to environmental damage.
Journal of Social Issues. 50.3(1994). Special Issue on “Green Justice.”
Kay, Jeanne. “Human Dominion over Nature in the Hebrew Bible.” In Annals of the Association of American Geographers 79.2(June 1989): 214-232.
Abstract: This paper demonstrates that the Bible’s most persistent environmental message is that God confers human dominion over nature to righteous or faithful people, whereas God punishes transgressors with natural disasters. Recent advances in studies of the Bible as literature reveal ways to interpret the theme of human dominion over nature, with the resulting evolution of that concept throughout the books of the Bible. The biblical notions of natural justice and righteous individuals in harmony with animals find current expression in the modern environmentalist movement. A comparison of contemporary American personal beliefs with modern geography suggests further research on the disparity of a secular discipline addressing a largely religious American public.
Kearns, Laurel. “Saving the Creation: Christian Environmentalism in the United States.” Sociology of Religion 57.1(1996): 55-71.
Abstract: In the mid 1980s, religious environmental activism in the United States increased dramatically. Based on field study of this emerging movement, this paper proposes three models or ethics of Christian-related eco-theology: Christian stewardship, eco-justice, and creation spirituality. As a portrait of the boundaries of this movement, the paper focuses in detail on Christian stewardship and creation spirituality. It then examines religious environmentalism through the cultural shift/change frameworks of McLoughlin, Swidler, Inglehart, Beckford, and Robertson.
Lagerwerf, Leny. “Justice, Peace and Integrity of Creation.” In Exchange
Laura, Westra. Faces of Environmental Racism: Confronting Issues of Global Justice. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2001.
Lee, Charles. “The integrity of justice : evidence of environmental racism.” In Sojourners, 19(February-March 1990): 22-25.
Lerner, Michael. “Fighting corporate globalization: after Seattle. In Tikkun
15.2(March-April 2000): 29-31,48-50.
Lerner, Steve, and Robert Bullard. Diamond: A Struggle for Environmental Justice in Louisiana’s Chemical Corridor. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Around the United States, struggles for environmental justice such as the one in Diamond are the new front lines of both the civil rights and the environmental movements, and Diamond is in many ways a classic environmental-justice story: a minority neighborhood, faced with a polluting industry in its midst, fights back. But Diamond is also the history of a black community that goes back to the days of slavery. In 1811, Diamond (then the Trepagnier Plantation) was the center of the largest slave rebellion in United States history. Descendants of these slaves were among the participants in the modern-day Diamond relocation campaign. Steve Lerner talks to the people of Diamond, and lets them tell their story in their own words. He talks also to the residents of a nearby white neighborhood – many of whom work for Shell and have fewer complaints about the plants – and to environmental activists and Shell officials. His account of Diamond’s 30-year ordeal puts a human face on the struggle for environmental justice in the United States.
Lester, James, David Allen, and Kelly Hill. Environmental Injustice in the United States: Myths and Realities. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2001.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Environmental Injustice in the United States provides systematic insight into the social, economic, and political dynamics of environmental decision-making, and the impacts of those decisions on minority communities. The first part of the book examines closely the history of the environmental justice movement and the scholarly literature to date, with a discussion about how the issue made the public agenda in the first place. The second part of the book is a unique quantitative analysis of the
relationship among race, class, political mobilization, and environmental harm at three levels– state, county, and city. Despite the initial skepticism of the authors, their study finds both race and class to be significant variables in explaining patterns of environmental harm. The third part of the book then offers policy recommendations to decisionmakers, based on the book’s findings.
Limouris, G. Justice Peace and the Integrity of Creation: Orthodox Perspective. Geneva, Switzerland, WCC Publications, 1990.
Liu, Feng. Environmental Justice Analysis: Theories, Methods, and Practice. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2000.
Low, Nicholas, ed. Global Ethics and Environment. New York, NY: Routledge, 1999.
Abstract: (From Publisher) As global capitalism expands and reaches ever-further corners of the world, practical problems continue to escalate and repercussions become increasingly serious and irreversible. These practical problems carry with them equally important and ethical issues. Global Ethics and Environment explores these ethical issues from a range of perspectives and using a wide range of case studies. Chapters focus on: the impact of development in new industrial regions; the ethical relationship between human and non-human nature; the application of ethics in different cultural and institutional contexts; environmental injustice in the location of hazardous materials and processes; the ethics of the impact of a single event (Chernobyl) on the global community; the ethics of transitional institutions. This collection will both stimulate debate and provide an excellent resource for wide-ranging case study material and solid academic context.
Low, Nicholas, and Brendan Gleeson. “Situating Justice in the Environment: The Case of BHP at the OK Tedi Copper Mine.” Antipode 30.3(1998): 201-227.
Abstract: Focuses on the importance of contextualization as a starting point for an integrated ecological ethics. Explanation of the point of departure from understandings of environmental ethics that presuppose a global ontological framework; Confrontation of the
problem of universality versus culture-bound conceptions of justice; Question on the need for global institutions of governance that would permit such development.
_. Justice, Society and Nature: An Exploration of Political Ecology. New York, NY: Routledge, 1998.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Moving straight to the heart of pressing international and national concerns, Nicholas Low and Brendan Gleeson explore the issues of environment and development, fair treatment of humans and non-humans, and the justice of the social and economic systems which affect the health and safety of the peoples of the world. Current grass-roots concerns such as the environmental justice movement in the U.S., and the ethics of the international regulation of development are examined. This book is essential reading for those seeking to understand current discussions in environmental politics, justice and ecology. The authors take debates beyond mere complaint about the injustice of the world economy, and suggest what should now be done to do justice to nature.
Maantay, Juliana. “Zoning Law, Health, and Environmental Justice: What’s the Connection?” in Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics 30.4(Winter 2002): 572-594.
Abstract: Examines the environmental justice and health implications of zoning laws and practices using the industrial zones in New York City. Evaluation of the efficacy of regulatory and participatory methods for achieving environmental justice; Evidence of the disproportionate environmental burden experienced by poorer people; Changes in the pattern of zoning in relation to the characteristics of the population.
Malone, Linda A., and Scott Paternack. Defending the Environment: Civil Society Strategies to Enforce International Environmental Law.
Washington, DC: Island Press, 2005.
Absract: (From Publisher) Defending the Environment provides the means for nongovernmental organizations, community groups, and individuals to bring environmental and public health problems to the attention of international courts, tribunals, and commissions, or to
their domestic counterparts. It suggests specific strategies and provides detailed information for taking action. This revised and updated edition also contains new case studies of the application of those strategies that has occurred in recent years.
Manaster, Kenneth. Environmental Protection and Justice: Readings and Commentary on Environmental Law and Practice. Ottawa, Canada: Anderson, 2000.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Environmental Protection and Justice offers students both a broad ethical and practical perspective on the evolving practice of Environmental Law, and a more specific focus on environmental justice developments. The book’s “environmental justice” materials have been expanded and updated for this Second Edition, creating an extensive and useful selection of such materials. This edition refines and builds upon the original materials with important recent developments, most notably selections from EPA’s proposed Title VI Guidances and materials on the Shintech-Tulane Environmental Law Clinic controversy.
Mason, Michael. Environmental Democracy: A Contextual Approach.
London, UK: Earthscan, 2000.
Abstract: (From Book) Civic self-determination and ecological sustainability are widely accepted as two of the most important public goals. This book explains how they can be combined. Using vivid and telling case studies from around the world, it shows how liberal rights can include both ecological and social conditions for collective decision-makingâ€“environmentalist goals and social justice can be achieved together. Cogently argued, it provides a superb teaching text and a source of ideas and persuasive arguments for the politically and environmentally engaged. It will be essential reading for students, teachers and researchers in politics, policy studies, environmental studies, geography and social science.
McDonagh, Sean. “Resolving the Third World Debt Crisis: A Crucial Challenge for Ecojustice.” Ecotheology: Journal of Religion, Nature and the Environment 5.5-6(1999): 95-114.
Abstract: Focuses on ways to resolve the third world debt crisis. Linkage between the third world debt crisis and environmental degradation; Protection of environment and working for justice.
McDonald, David A. ed. Environmental Justice in South Africa.
Capetown, SA: University of Cape Town Press, 2002.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Environmental Justice in South Africa provides a systematic overview of the first ten years of postapartheid environmental politics. Written by leading activists and academics in the field, this edited collection offers the first critical perspective of environmental justice theory and practice in South Africa.
Accessible and wide-ranging in its coverage, the book offers a benchmark analysis of the environmental justice movement today as well as an assessment of where it may be headed in the future.
McGranahan, Gordon, Pedro Jacobi, Jacob Songsore, Charles Surjadi, and Marianne Kjellen. The Citizens at Risk: From Urban Sanitation to Sustainable Cities. London, UK: Earthscan Press, 2001.
Abstract: (From Publisher) At different levels this book addresses: 1: the challenge of improving health conditions in deprived urban settlements; 2: the challenge of sustainable urban development in a globalizing world; and 3: environmental justice and urban development. It analyzes how environmental and health risks arise in cities, who has to bear them and why, focusing on cities in Asia, Africa and South America. On the basis of this understanding it explains how conditions can be improved for those living in these rapidly growing cities and argues that environmental justice provides a more meaningful measure and goal for urban environmental improvement than ‘sustainable development’.
McGurty, Eileen M. Transforming Environmentalism: Warren County, PCBS, and the Origins of Environmental Justice. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007.
Abstract: (From Publisher) In Transforming Environmentalism, Eileen McGurty explores a moment central to the emergence of the environmental justice movement. In 1978, residents of predominantly African American Warren County, North Carolina, were horrified to
learn that the state planned to build a landfill in their county to hold forty thousand cubic yards of soil that was contaminated with PCBs from illegal dumping. They responded to the state’s plans with a four-year resistance, ending in a month of protests with over 500 arrests from civil disobedience and disruptive actions. McGurty traces the evolving approaches that residents took to contest “environmental racism” in their community and shows how activism in Warren County spurred greater political debate and became a model for communities across the nation. Transforming Environmentalism explores how the specific circumstances of the Warren County events shaped the formation of the environmental justice movement and influenced contemporary environmentalism.
McRipley, Bernadine, William Somplatsky-Jarman, eds. “For the Beauty of the Earth : Restoring Creation for Ecology and Justice.” In Church & Society 86(July-August 1996): 1-152.
Melchart, Charles. “Creation and justice among the sages.” In Religious Education, 85.3(Summer 1990): 368-382.”
Abstract: Examines how Israel’s sages see the connections between ecological responsibility and justice among peoples of the world.
Association of the regularities of nature with ethical issues of human justice and injustice; Educational implications of prophetic and historical traditions.
Mennis, Jeremy, and Lisa Jordan. “The Distribution of Environmental Equity: Exploring Spatial Nonstationarity in Multivariate Models of Air Toxic Releases.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 95.2(2005): 249-268.
Abstract: Conventional multivariate regression can hide important local variations in the relationships among independent and dependent variables in models of environmental equity.
Geographically weighted regression (GWR), in combination with choropleth mapping, can reveal this spatial nonstationarity and shed light on its form. We use GWR, in combination with conventional univariate and multivariate statistics, to model the density of air toxic releases in New Jersey, as listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Toxic Release Inventory (TRI). The GWR
analysis shows that the relationships among race, class, employment, urban concentration, and land use with air toxic release density in New Jersey vary significantly over space. Generally, there is a positively significant relationship of minorities with air toxic releases over a large swath of urban and suburban New Jersey, although this pattern is not evident for all urban areas. Northeast New Jersey, the most densely populated part of the state, contains areas of both significantly positive and negative relationships between concentrations of minorities and air toxic releases. The association of minorities with concentrations of air toxic releases, where observed, is often mediated by other factors, though the role of these mediating factors also varies from place to place. In some of these areas the minority–air-toxic-release association is mediated by high poverty rates, in other areas, by the presence of industrial, commercial, and transportation land uses.
Mutz, Kathryn, Gary Bryner, and Douglas Kenney, eds. Justice and Natural Resources: Concepts, Strategies, and Applications.
Washington, DC: Island Press, 2001).
Abstract: (From Publisher) This is one of the first books devoted to exploring the concept of environmental justice in the realm of natural resources. Contributors consider how decisions about the management and use of natural resources can exacerbate social injustice and the problems of disadvantaged communities. Looking at issues that are predominantly rural and western - many of them involving Indian reservations, public lands, and resource development activities - it offers a new and more expansive view of environmental justice. The book begins by delineating the key conceptual dimensions of environmental justice in the natural resource arena. Following the conceptual chapters are contributions that examine the application of environmental justice in natural resource decision-making. The book offers a concise overview of the field of environmental justice and a set of frameworks for understanding it. It expands the previously urban and industrial scope of the movement to include distribution of the burdens and access to the benefits of natural resources, broadening environmental justice to a truly nationwide concern.
Myers, Jeffrey. Converging Stories: Race, Ecology and Environmental Justice in American Literature. Atlanta, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2005.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Myers first discusses the paradox of Thomas Jefferson’s agrarian vision, by which ideas espoused in his Notes on the State of Virginia can support either environmental destruction or conservation, a democratic or a racist society. Next, by looking race-critically at Thoreau’s Walden and The Maine Woods, then ecocritically at Charles Chesnutt’s The Conjure Woman and Zitkala-Sa’s Old Indian Legends and American Indian Stories, Myers traces the development of a new resistance to racial and ecological hegemony. He concludes by discussing how the antiracist, egalitarian ecocentricity in these earlier writers can be seen in contemporary writer Eddy L. Harris’s Mississippi Solo. Myers’s discussion encompasses other authors as well, including Ralph Waldo Emerson, John Muir, and Willa Cather. By looking at works by Native Americans, African Americans, European Americans, and others, and by considering forms of literature beyond the traditional nature essay, Myers expands our conceptions of environmental writing and environmental justice.
National Catholic Reporter. 42.3(6/16/2006). Special Issue on Environmental Justice.
From Abstract: An interview article with Robert Bullard, a pioneer of the environmental justice movement, is presented in the special edition. A review on the book “The Quest for Environmental Justice” can be found. A photo essay is also featured on one of the most fought-for American environmental treasures.
National Environmental Justice Advisory. Unheard Voices from the Border: A Report on Environmental Justice in the U.S.-Mexico Border Region From the Past to the Future. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency, 2003.
Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1996.
Nipkow, Karl Ernst. “Integrity of Faith, Social Justice and an Environmentally Friendly Future : What Kind of Interfaith Encounter Is Needed in our Schools?” In British Journal of Religious Education 22(Autumn 1999): 25-34.
Novotny, Patrick. Where we Live, Work, and Play: The Environmental Justice Movement and the Struggle for a New Environmentalism. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2000.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Numerous studies have revealed that the poor disproportionately bear the burden of environmental problems in America today. Issues range from higher levels of poisonous wastes, carbon dioxide, and ozone, to greater than normal incidences of asthma and lead poisoning. The environmental justice movement, which has emerged in working class and low-income African American and Latino communities since the early 1990s, is an effort that is reinterpreting the definition of the environment as “where we live, work, and play” to connect new constituencies traditionally outside of the postwar environmental movement. Novotny documents this expanding constituency through case studies of four community groups ranging from South Central Los Angeles to Louisiana. “Environmental racism” is understood as yet another type of discrimination which results in a high incidence of environmental concerns in poorer communities due to what many activists see as discriminatory land use practices, decisions by industry that intentionally locate hazardous wastes in these communities, and the uneven enforcement of environmental regulations by federal, state, and local officials. Community leaders have added environmental causes to their fight against unemployment, impoverishment, and substandard housing. This study explores various attempts to put a halt to illegal practices and to broaden public awareness of the issues involved.
O’Neill, John, Kerry Turner, and Ian Bateman. Environmental Ethics and Philosophy. Northhampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 2002.
Abstract: (From Publisher) ‘Sustainability’ and ‘sustainable development’ have become key phrases of the politics of the environment. They are at the center of much environmental discourse
and indeed of the series of which this collection is a part. This major volume brings together a number of recent papers that address the ethical and political assumptions that underlie different uses of those concepts. Part I examines equality and justice. Part II focuses on justice, equality and future generations. Part III deals with the moral considerability of the non-human world and Part IV looks at environmental justice. Part V examines economic valuation and Part VI discusses sustainability. Part VII covers sustainability and nature. This volume will be an invaluable source of reference for scholars of environmental economics, environmental political theory, environmental ethics and geography, and all those concerned with the philosophical foundations of sustainability.
Owens, Owen. “Becoming White : Steps Toward Eco-Justice.” In
American Baptist Quarterly 15.1(March 1996): 60-71.
Owensby, Walter L. “Economic justice within environmental limits : the need for a new economic ethic.” In Church & Society. 67(1976): 5- 78.
Parrish, Steven. “From domination to eco-justice : rereading selected creation texts in the Hebrew Bible.” Memphis Theological Seminary Journal, 29(Sum 1991): 52-64.
Pastor, Manuel, James Sadd, and Rachel Morello-Frosch. “Who’s Minding the Kids? Pollution, Public Schools, and Environmental Justice in Los Angeles.” Social Science Quarterly 83.1(2002): 263- 281.
Abstract: Although previous environmental justice research has focused on analysis of the disproportionate burden of environmental hazards on minority residents, few studies have examined demographic inequities in health risks among children. This article evaluates the demographic distribution of potentially hazardous facilities and health risks associated with ambient air toxics exposures among public schoolchildren in the Los Angeles Unified School District.
Pellow, David N. Resisting Global Toxics: Transnational Movements for Environmental Justice. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007.
_. Garbage Wars: The Struggle for Environmental Justice in Chicago. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002.
Pellow, David, and Lisa Sun-Hee Park. The Silicon Valley of Dreams: Environmental Injustice, Immigrant Workers, and the High-Tech Global Economy. New York, NY: New York University Press, 2002.
Abstract: (From Publisher) In The Silicon Valley of Dreams, the authors take a hard look at the high-tech region of Silicon Valley to examine environmental racism within the context of immigrant patterns, labor markets, and the historical patterns of colonialism.
One cannot understand Silicon Valley or the high-tech global economy in general, they contend, without also understanding the role people of color play in the labor force, working in the electronic industry’s toxic environments. These toxic work environments produce chemical pollution that, in turn, disrupts the ecosystems of surrounding communities inhabited by people of color and immigrants. The authors trace the origins of this exploitation and provide a new understanding of the present-day struggles for occupational health and safety. The Silicon Valley of Dreams will be critical reading for students and scholars in ethnic studies, immigration, urban studies, gender studies, social movements, and the environment, as well as activists and policy-makers working to address the needs of workers, communities, and industry.
Pellow, David, and Robert Brulle. Eds. Power, Justice, and the Environment: A Critical Appraisal of the Environmental Justice Movement. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Power, Justice, and the Environment looks first at the progress, failures, and successes of the EJM over the years. A comparison with the Civil Rights movement draws some provocative conclusions.The book next focuses on the development of new strategies and cultural perspectives, considering, among other topics, alternative models for community mobilization and alternative organizational structure. Finally, the book examines the effect of globalization on environmental inequality and how the EJM can address transnational environmental injustices.
Perrett, Roy W. “Indigenous Rights and Environmental Justice.” In
Environmental Ethics 20(Winter 1998): 377-391.
Persaud, Winston. “Towards a trinitarian theology of justification and vision of eco-justice.” In Dialog, 31(Aut 1992): 294-302.
Pessullo, Phaedra. Toxic Tourism: Rhetorics of Pollution, Travel, and Environmental Justice. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 2007.
Plumwood, Val. “Inequality, Ecojustice and Ecological Rationality.” In
Ecotheology 5-6(July/January 1998-1999): 185-218.
Prindeville, Dia. On the Streets and in the State House: American Indian and Hispanic Women and Environmental Policymaking in New Mexico. New York, NY: Routledge, 2003.
Abstract: This study explores the politics of American Indian and Hispanic women leaders in New Mexico’s environmental policymaking arena. Using non-random purposive sampling, 50 women were selected for participation who were political activists in grassroots organization or public officials, elected or appointed to local, state or tribal government. Personal interviews were employed to gather data on their political socialization, their leadership trajectories, their motives for engagement in public life, their political ideology, their racial-ethnic- and gender identity and their policy agendas and strategies for influencing public policymaking.
Quiroz-Martinez, J., Wu, D. Pei, Zimmerman, K. ReGeneration: Young People Shaping Environmental Justice. Oakland, CA: Movement Strategy Center, 2005.
Ranck, Lee. “Environmental justice issues.” In Christian Social Action, 2(March 1989): 4-24.
Rasmussen, Larry. “Environmental Racism and Environmental Justice: Moral Theory in the Making?” in Journal of the Society of Christian Ethics 24.1(2004): 3-28.
_. “Is eco-justice central to Christian faith?” In Union Seminary Quarterly Review 54.3-4(2000): 107-124.
_. “Global eco-justice: the church’s mission in urban society” In Christianity and ecology. Edited by Rosemary Radford Ruether and Dieter Hessel. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000.
Rasmussen, Larry and Dieter Hessel. Earth Habitat: Eco-Injustice and the Church’s Response. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 2001.
Rasolondraibe, Péri. “Environmental concern and economic justice.” In
Word & World 11(Spring 1991): 147-155.
Rechtschaffen, Clifford and Eileen Gauna, eds. Environmental Justice: Law, Policy, and Regulation. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2002.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Environmental justice is a significant and dynamic contemporary development in environmental law.
Rechtschaffen and Gauna provide an accessible compilation of interdisciplinary materials for studying environmental justice, interspersed with extensive notes, comments, and questions designed to facilitate classroom discussion. It integrates excerpts from empirical studies, cases, agency decisions, informal agency guidance, law reviews, and other academic literature, as well as community- generated documents. The materials include writings from the fields of environmental law and civil rights law, as well as sociology, political science, and risk assessment.
Rhodes, Edwardo Lao. Environmental Justice in America: A New Paradigm. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2003.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Edwardo Lao Rhodes examines the issue of environmental justice as a public policy concern and suggests the use of a new methodology in its evaluation. Rather than argue the merits of growth versus environmental protection, he makes the case that race and class were not major concerns of environmental policy until the 1990s. Why this was so, and why awareness of social justice should be an important consideration in thinking about environmental impact takes up the first part of the book. Part II looks more closely at public policy concerns and discusses the methodological approaches that can illuminate the problem of
environmental justice. Rhodes proposes the use of “data envelopment analysis” as a more useful risk assessment tool than current methodologies. The book’s final section examines the disposal of hazardous material in rural Noxubee County, Mississippi. After acknowledging the difficulties of arriving at an “equitable” solution in this complex case, Rhodes discusses recommendations that might ensure that sharing the burden of risk becomes a fundamental part of environmental policy. Although Environmental Justice in America deals primarily with the United States, it raises issues of international concern: global environmental justice programs, national sovereignty, the paternalism of developed nations toward the underdeveloped world, and questions of economic necessity.
Robb, Carol and Carl Casebolt, eds. Covenant for a new creation : ethics, religion, and public policy. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1991.
Roberts, J. Timmons. Chronicles from the Environmental Justice Frontline. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Chronicles from the Environmental Justice Frontline describes four cases in Louisiana in which residents were locked in struggles with industry and government representatives over issues of environmental injustice. Roberts and Toffolon-Weiss explain how, at the end of the twentieth century, situations of environmental injustice were created and eventually resolved. The authors show that conflicts do not occur in a vacuum.
Rather, one struggle changes policy, trains political actors, activists, and industry representatives, and can have a significant effect on all future struggles.
Robyn, Linda. “Indigenous Knowledge and Technology.” American Indian Quarterly 26.2(2002): 198-221.
Abstract: Discusses the relationship between American Indians and environmental justice. Details of sustainability and technology transfer of Native knowledge; Information on colonization; Focus of trust relationship between the federal government and Indian tribes; Discussion on racial conflicts between the Chippewa and non- Indians in Wisconsin.
Ruether, Rosemary R. “Conclusion: eco-justice at the center of the church’s mission.” In Christianity and ecology. Edited by Rosemary Radford Ruether and Dieter Hessel. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000. 603-614.
Sachs, Aaron. Eco-Justice: Linking Human Rights and the Environment.
Washington, DC: WorldWatch Institute, 1995.
Sanborn, Hugh W., ed. The prophetic call: celebrating community, Earth, justice, and peace. By: St Louis, MO: Chalice Press, 2004.
Sandler, Ronald and Phaedra C. Pezzullo, eds. Environmental Justice and Environmentalism: The Social Justice Challenge to the Environmental Movement. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Although the environmental movement and the environmental justice movement would seem to be natural allies, their relationship over the years has often been characterized by conflict and division. The environmental justice movement has charged the mainstream environmental movement with racism and elitism and has criticized its activist agenda on the grounds that it values wilderness over people. Environmental justice advocates have called upon environmental organizations to act on environmental injustice and address racism and classism in their own hiring and organizational practices, lobbying agenda, and political platforms.
This book examines the current relationship between the two movements in both conceptual and practical terms and explores the possibilities for future collaboration.
Santmire, Paul. “Ecology, justice and theology : beyond the preliminary skirmishes.” In Christian Century. 93(May 12, 1976): 460-464.
Abstract: Out of these environmental issues a theological dispute has arisen - one that could bode serious ill for the life and mission of the church if it gives rise to a full-fledged polarization. The debate between those who maintain an interest in “ecological theology” and the more firmly established exponents of “political theology” must
be resolved without delay. At a time when spiritual discouragement, pietistic fervor, narcissistic monetary preoccupation, and quietistic political withdrawal are increasingly in evidence within the churches, we can ill afford a frenetic dispute between two theological movements dedicated, overall, to radical re-formation of both church and society.
Schlosberg, David. Environmental Justice and the New Pluralism: The Challenge of Difference for Environmentalism. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Abstract: (From Publisher) In the first ever theoretical treatment of the environmental justice movement, David Schlosberg demonstrates the development of a new form of `critical’ pluralism, in both theory and practice. Taking into account the evolution of environmentalism and pluralism over the course of the century, the author argues that the environmental justice movement and new pluralist theories now represent a considerable challenge to both conventional pluralist thought and the practices of the major groups in the US environmental movement. Much of recent political theory has been aimed at how to acknowledge and recognize, rather than deny, the diversity inherent in contemporary life. In practice, the myriad ways people define and experience the `environment’ has given credence to a form of environmentalism that takes difference seriously. The environmental justice movement, with its base in diversity, its networked structure, and its communicative practices and demands, exemplifies the attempt to design political practices beyond those one would expect from a standard interest group in the conventional pluralist model.
Shallcross, Tony and John Robinson, eds. Global Citizenship and Environmental Justice. New York, NY: Rodopi Press, 2006.
Shiva, Vandana. Earth Democracy: Justice, Sustainability and Peace.
Cambridge, MA: Southend Press, 2005.
Abstract: (From the Publisher) Starting from the initial enclosure of the commons-the privatization of 6 million acres of public land in 18th-century Britain—Shiva goes on to reveal how the “commons” continue to shrink as more and more natural resources are patented
and fenced. Accompanying this displacement from formerly accessible territory, she argues, is a growing attitude of disposability that erodes our natural resources, ecological sustainability, and cultural diversity. Worse, human beings are by no means safe from this assignment of disposability. Through the forces of neoliberal globalization, economic and social exclusion work in deadly synergy to perpetrate violence on vulnerable groups, extinguishing the lives of millions. Yet these brutal extinctions are not the only trend shaping human history. Forthright and energetic, Vandana Shiva updates readers on the movements, issues, and struggles she helped bring to international attention—the genetic engineering of food, the theft of culture, and the privatization of natural resources—and deftly analyzes the successes and new challenges the global resistance now faces. From struggles on the streets of Seattle and Cancún and in homes and farms across the world has grown a set of principles based on inclusion, nonviolence, reclaiming the commons, and freely sharing the earth’s resources. These ideals, which Shiva calls Earth Democracy, will serve as unifying points in our current movements, an urgent call to peace, and the basis for a just and sustainable future.
Shoemaker, Dennis. “Loving people, loving earth : the unity of eco- justice.” Christianity and Crisis, 47(Ag 3 1987): 260-263.
Shrader-Frechette, Kristin. “The sky is falling. No, really.” U.S. Catholic.
71.4 (April 2006): 18-23.
Abstract: Presents an interview with Kristin Shrader-Frechette, a researcher and scholar working for environmental justice. Outlook on how Catholics view environmental justice; Comparison of the level of pollution in the U.S. and in Japan and European nations; Costs of pollution control; Importance of recycling and buying organic foods.
. Environmental Justice: Creating Equity, Reclaiming Democracy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Shrader-Frechette offers a rigorous philosophical discussion of environmental justice. Explaining fundamental ethical concepts such as equality, property rights, procedural justice, free informed consent, intergenerational equity,
and just compensation–and then bringing them to bear on real-world social issues–she shows how many of these core concepts have been compromised for a large segment of the global population, among them Appalachians, African-Americans, workers in hazardous jobs, and indigenous people in developing nations. She argues that burdens like pollution and resource depletion need to be apportioned more equally, and that there are compelling ethical grounds for remedying our environmental problems. She also argues that those affected by environmental problems must be included in the process of remedying those problems; that all citizens have a duty to engage in activism on behalf of Environmental Justice; and that in a democracy it is the people, not the government, that are ultimately responsible for fair use of the environment.
Simmons, Cynthia S. “The Political Economy of Land Conflict in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 94.1(March 2004): 183-206.
Abstract: An important goal of regional development in the Brazilian Amazon was to enhance social welfare and alleviate dire poverty in other parts of the country by providing land to the poor.
Nevertheless, both poverty and landlessness have persisted despite development policies that distributed billions of dollars on highway construction, loans, and outright subsidies. Inequitable land distribution has been held as a prime factor in land conflict across the country. Although episodes of conflict over land are common in Brazilian history, this paper focuses on agrarian issues that arose with the opening of the Amazon frontier in the 1970s.
Skoglund, John. “Ecology and justice.” Foundations. 17(1974): 99-172. Skolimowski, Henry. “Eco-ethics as the imperative of our times.”
Epiphany, 3.3(Spring1983): 26-34.
Abstract: Traditional religious ethics has lost its ground with the decline of religion. Utilitarian ethics has been subverted by consumerism. All forms of intrinsic ethics have been undercut by one form of instrumental ethics called cost/benefit analysis, which really is not an ethics. As human beings, we cannot live without intrinsic values which define our human status. Eco-ethics, based on the
imperative of reverence for life, attempts to provide new intrinsic values for our times. From reverence for life follow: responsibility, self-reliance, diversity, eco-justice, frugality (the last defined as grace without waste). These are intrinsic values of eco-ethics.
Smith, Ted, David Sonnefeld, and David Naguib Pellow, eds. Challenging the Chip: Labor Rights and Environmental Justice in the Global Electronics Industry. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2006.
Abstract: (From Publisher) From Silicon Valley in California to Silicon Glen in Scotland, from Silicon Island in Taiwan to Silicon Paddy in China, the social, economic, and ecological effects of the international electronics industry are widespread. The production of electronic and computer components contaminates air, land, and water around the globe. As this eye-opening book reveals, the people who suffer the consequences are largely poor, female, immigrant, and minority. Challenging the Chip is the first comprehensive examination of the impacts of electronics manufacturing on workers and local environments across the planet.
Social Science Quarterly 81.3(2000). This is a special issue on EJ!
_. 77.3(1996). Special Issue on EJ.
Stein, Rachel. Ed. New Perspectives on Environmental Justice: Gender, Sexuality and Activism. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2004.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Women make up the vast majority of activists and organizers of grassroots movements fighting against environmental ills that threaten poor and people of color communities. New Perspectives on Environmental Justice is the first collection of essays that pays tribute to the enormous contributions women have made in these endeavors. The writers offer varied examples of environmental justice issues such as children’s environmental health campaigns, cancer research, AIDS/HIV activism, the Environmental Genome Project, and popular culture, among many others. Each one focuses on gender and sexuality as crucial factors in women’s or gay men’s activism and applies environmental justice principles to related struggles for sexual
justice. The contributors represent a wide variety of activist and scholarly perspectives including law, environmental studies, sociology, political science, history, medical anthropology, American studies, English, African and African American studies, women’s studies, and gay and lesbian studies, offering multiple vantage points on gender, sexuality, and activism.
Stivers, Robert. “Justice, participation, and sustainable sufficiency.” In Public vocation of Christian ethics. Beverly Harrison, Robert Stiverrs and Ronald Stone, eds. New York, NY: Pilgrim Press, 1986. 179-191.
Stone, Jerome. “Eco-Justice and the Environment.” In American Journal of Theology & Philosophy,18.1(January 1997): 3-87.
Stretesky, Paul and Michael Lynch. “Environmental Justice and the Predictions of Distance to Accidental Chemical Releases in Hillsborough County, Florida.” Social Science Quarterly 80.4(1999): 830-844.
Abstract: The article examines environmental justice and the predictions of distance of accidental chemical releases (ACR) in Hillsborough County, Florida from 1991-1994. The article makes an attempt at expanding the way in which people think about and analyze environmental justice and the distribution of environmental risks. The distribution of risk associated with accidental chemical releases (ACRs), one area currently omitted from environmental justice studies, has been examined. The article focuses on two trends, that emerge from environmental justice studies because the trends are specific to this work. First, it is clear that the results obtained by environmental justice researchers vary by the unit of analysis studied. Results used to draw conclusions about environmental justice, also vary by unit of analysis, when Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) data are examined. A more recent pattern observed in the environmental justice literature, concerns the relationship between economic indicators and environmental hazards.
Swyngedouw, Erik, and Nikolas Heynen. “Urban Political Ecology: Justice and the Politics of Scale.” In Antipode 35.5(2003): 898-918.
Abstract: This and the subsequent papers in this special issue set out the contours of Marxian urban political ecology and call for greater research attention to a neglected field of critical research that, given its political importance, requires urgent attention. Notwithstanding the important contributions of other critical perspectives on urban ecology, Marxist urban political ecology provides an integrated and relational approach that helps untangle the interconnected economic, political, social and ecological processes that together go to form highly uneven and deeply unjust urban landscapes.
Szasz, Andrew. Ecopopulism: Toxic Waste and the Movement for Environmental Justice. Minneapolis, MN: University of MN Press, 1994.
Abstract (From Publisher): This book reconstructs the growth of a powerful movement around the question of toxic waste. Szasz follows the issue as it moves from the world of “official” policymaking in Washington, onto the nation’s television screens and into popular consciousness, and then into America’s neighborhoods, spurring the formation of thousands of local, community-based groups. He shows how, in less than a decade, a rich infrastructure of more permanent social organizations emerged from this movement, expanding its focus to include issues like municipal waste, military toxics, and pesticides. In the growth of this movement, we witness the birth of a radical environmental populism. Here Szasz identifies the force that pushed environmental policy away from the traditional approach, pollution removal, toward the superior logic of pollution prevention. He discusses the conflicting official responses to the movement’s evolution, revealing that, despite initial resistance, lawmakers eventually sought to appease popular discontent by strengthening toxic waste laws. In its success, Szasz suggests, this movement may even prove to be the vehicle for reinvigorating progressive politics in the United States.
Tanner, Kathryn. “Creation, environmental crisis, and ecological justice.” In Reconstructing Christian theology. Rebecca S. Chopp and Mark
L. Taylor, eds. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 1997: 99-123.
Thomas, Deborash and Susan Cutter. “Dumping in Dixie Revisited: The Evolution of Environmental Injustices in South Carolina.” Social Science Quarterly 80.2(1999): 229-244.
Abstract: The article presents information on the evolution of environmental injustices in South Carolina. Much of the environmental justice research has focused on outcome– the relative location of hazardous and low-income or minority population. While presenting a snapshot of contemporary inequities, these studies fail to demonstrate some of the underlying causes that produced such outcomes. One question is weather the facility was located initially in a minority or low-income community or if minority and low-income populations came to live around the facility over time. This article examines demographic changes in areas near hazardous facilities to ascertain which came first. The South has been tagged as a “sacrifice zone,” for the rest of United State’s, toxic waste. More pointedly, the assertion is that radical minorities and the lower-income classes within this sacrifice zone bear a disproportionate burden of the region’s environmental problem. This article thus addresses the ambiguities in environmental justice research by examining the question of which came first: Did the residents come to the nuisance or was the nuisance imposed on them?
Tinker, George. “Community and ecological justice: a Native American response.” In Earth at Risk: An Environmental Dialogue Between Religion and Science. Rodney Petersen and Donald Conroy, eds. Amherst, NY: Humanity Books, 2000: 239-259.
United States Commission on Civil Rights. Not in My Backyard: Executive Order 12, 898 and Title VI as Tools for Achieving Environmental Justice. Washington, DC: US Commission on Civil Rights, 2003. (PDF Available: http://www.usccr.gov/pubs/envjust/ej0104.pdf)
United States. Congress. House. Committee on the Judiciary.
Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights. Environmental justice : hearings before the Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, first session, March 3 and 4, 1993. Washington, DC: U.S. G.P.O., 1994.
Van Wynsberghe, Robert. AlterNatives: Community, Identity, and Environmental Justice on Walpole Island. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 2001.
Visgilio, Gerald, and Diana Whitelaw. Our Backyard: A Quest for Environmental Justice. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003.
Abstract: (From Publisher) This a collection of essays by local activists and nationally recognized scholars that deal with the history, status and dilemmas of environmental justice. These essays provide a comprehensive overview of social and political aspects associated with environmental injustices in minority and poor communities. In addition to focusing on the actions taken by communities and politicians in response to an actual or perceived environmental risk, the book also deals with the methodological challenges confronting environmental justice research. The book also looks at the future of the environmental justice movement with a discussion of the sustainability of environmental justice in a more conservative political climate. Our Backyardraises important questions that will engender considerable debate about environmental justice. It will provide a solid platform for dialogue between activists and policymakers or between teachers and students.
Voigt, Christina. “From Climate Change to Sustainability: An Essay on Sustainable Development, Legal and Ethical Choices.” Worldviews: Environment Culture Religion. 19.1(2005): 112-137.
Abstract: This paper discusses some fundamental impediments to implementing the complex concept of sustainable development within the international legal framework in general, and the climate change regime in particular. It argues that sustainable development should primarily be seen as a normative concept, closely linked to an idea of environmental justice that incorporates the interests not only of present humans but also of future generations and the non-human environment. The paper explores the relationship between sustainability as a moral idea and sustainability as located in a legal context. It argues for the evolution of a coherent system of ethics and law of sustainability, with particular relevance to decreasing
greenhouse gas emissions on a global scale. The importance of multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research is emphasised. It is suggested that the fundamental challenges posed by a globally changing climate might function as an important impulse to “cross- faculty” research and innovative thinking. The results of such thinking might in turn inform international action in tackling climate change. Although the investigation cannot be exhaustive, this paper aims to serve as an impetus for multidisciplinary research and further discourse on the reconciliation of society and the environment, law and ethics.
Walker, Paulette. “Promoting environmental justice.” Chronicle of Higher Education 42.30(4/5/96): A7.
Abstract: Profiles Larry L. Rasmussen, a professor of social ethics at Union Theological Seminary in New York, and describes his interest in eco-social justice. The similarities between the poorest neighborhoods in Cape Town, South Africa, and in New York; The association between suffering and the exhaustion of resources; Social justice in large cities; The formation of a bi-national coalition on eco- social justice.
Washington, Sylvia Hood. Packing Them In: An Archaeology of Environmental Racism in Chicago, 1865-1954. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2005.
Abstract: (From Publisher) This important new book by Sylvia Washington adds a vital new dimension to our understanding of environmental history in the United States. Washington excavates and tells the stories of Chicago’s poor, working class, and ethnic minority neighborhoods–such as Back of the Yards and Bronzeville-
-that suffered disproportionately negative environmental impacts and consequent pollution related health problems. This pioneering work will be essential reading not only for historians, but for urban planners, sociologists, citizen action groups and anyone interested in understanding the precursors to the contemporary environmental justice movement.
Washington, Sylvia Hood, Heather Goodall, and Paul Rosier, eds. Echoes from the Poisoned Well: Global Memories of Environmental
Injustice. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2006.
Abstract: (From Publisher) The emerging environmental justice movement has created greater awareness among scholars that communities from all over the world suffer from similar environmental inequalities. This volume takes up the challenge of linking the focussed campaigns and insights from African American campaigns for environmental justice with the perspectives of this global group of environmentally marginalized groups. The editorial team has drawn on Washington’s work, on Paul Rosier’s study of Native American environmentalism, and on Heather Goodall’s work with Indigenous Australians to seek out wider perspectives on the relationships between memories of injustice and demands for environmental justice in the global arena. This collection contributes to environmental historiography by providing “bottom up” environmental histories in a field which so far has mostly emphasized a “top down” perspective, in which the voices of those most heavily burdened by environmental degradation are often ignored. The essays here serve as a modest step in filling this lacuna in environmental history by providing the viewpoints of peoples and of indigenous communities which traditionally have been neglected while linking them to a global context of environmental activism and education.
Weaver, Jace, ed. Defending Mother Earth: Native American Perspectives on Environmental Justice. New York, NY: Orbis, 1996.
Webb, Benjamin, ed. Fugitive faith : conversations on spiritual, environmental, and community renewal. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1998.
Wenz, Peter S. Environmental Justice. Albany, NY: SUNY, 1988. Westra, Laura. Environmental Justice and the Rights of Unborn and
Future Generations. London, UK: Earthscan Press, 2006.
Abstract: (From Publisher) This book is the first systematic examination of how the rights of the unborn and future generations are handled in common law and under international legal instruments. It provides comprehensive coverage of the arguments
over international legal instruments, key legal cases and examples including the Convention on the Rights of the Child, industrial disasters, clean water provision, diet, HIV/AIDS, environmental racism and climate change. The result is the most controversial and thorough examination to date of the subject and the enormous ramifications and challenges it poses to every aspect of international and domestic environmental, human rights, trade and public health law and policy. Also covered are international agreements and objectives as diverse as the Kyoto Protocol, the Millennium Development Goals and international trade.
Williams, Christopher. Environmental Victims: New Risks, New Injustice.
London, UK, 1998.
Abstract: (From Publisher) The book draws attention to environmental victims, whether high profile cases such as that exposed by Ken Saro-Wiwa in Nigeria or the nameless statistics of raised cancer and respiratory disease rates. It also highlights invisible hazards such as exposure to neurotoxins and genotoxins (which may cause heritable DNA changes) in polluted air, contaminated food and drinking water; workplace hazards; radiation (from weapons testing and power generation); and industrial pollution (including major industrial disasters such as at Bougainville and Bhopal). It examines existing scientific, legal and public perceptions; provides a set of illuminating case studies; and offers solutions to ensuring human well-being in the face of environmental impacts
Wulfhorst, JD. And Anne Haugestad, eds. Future as Fairness: Ecological Justice and Global Citizenship. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi, 2004.
Abstract: (From Publisher) Twenty years after the establishment of the World Commission on Environment and Development, the 13 contributions in this interdisciplinary volume offer a broad spectrum of perspectives and research-based recommendations on environmental sustainability, social justice and the human enterprise. The cases explored cover global citizenly rights and obligations, environmental health, ecological building practices, tradable fuel permits, forestry and illegal logging, local waste management, employment and risk assessments, the genetic modification debate,
nuclear and toxic waste, global environmental governance and 500 years of globalization.
Yandle, Tracy, and Dudley Burton. “Reexamining Environmental Justice: A Statistical Analysis of Historical Hazardous Waste Landfill Siting Patterns in Metropolitan Texas.” Social Science Quarterly 77.3(1996): 477-492.
Abstract: Examines the claims that poor and nonwhite communities host a disproportionately large number of waste disposal facilities than the wealthier white communities. Relationship between relative poverty and hazardous waste landfill siting; Need for research on the link between demographic data of the communities surrounding locally unwanted land uses.
Zerner, Charles. ed. People, Plants, and Justice: The Politics of Nature Conservation. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2000.
Abstract (From Publisher): In an era of market triumphalism, this book probes the social and environmental consequences of market- linked nature conservation schemes. Rather than supporting a new anti-market orthodoxy, Charles Zerner and colleagues assert that there is no universal entity, “the market.” Analysis and remedies must be based on broader considerations of history, culture, and geography in order to establish meaningful and lasting changes in policy and practice. Original case studies from Asia, Latin America, Africa, and the South Pacific focus on topics as diverse as ecotourism, bioprospecting, oil extraction, cyanide fishing, timber extraction, and property rights. The cases position concerns about biodiversity conservation and resource management within social justice and legal perspectives, providing new insights for students, scholars, policy professionals and donor/foundations engaged in international conservation and social justice.