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Document Type(s):Journal Article
Article/Chapter Title:Nature and Tzu-jan in Early Chinese Philosophical Literature
Journal Title:Journal of Chinese Philosophy
Author(s):Houten, Richard Van
Date of Publication:1988
Annotation:Houten analyzes the use of the term, Tzu-jan (self-so), in Pre-Han texts such as the writings of Chuang-Tzu and Lao-Tzu as well as in texts of the syncretistic Han period. Important in establishing Taoism’s character as a systematized nature religion, the philosophical term tzu-jan begins with a meaning simply denoting spontaneous action however, it later evolves into a notion that connects both Confucian and Taoist ideas on culture and nature.
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