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Document Type(s):Book Chapter
Book Title:Asian Perceptions of Nature: A Critical Approach
Article/Chapter Title:Sacred Trees and Haunted Forests in Indonesia: Particularly Java, Nineteenth and Twentieth Century
Editor(s):Brunn, Ole; Kalland, Arne
Author(s):Boomgard, Peter
Publisher Name:Curzon Press
Place of Publication:Surrey
Date of Publication:1995
Issue:no. 18
Annotation:Acknowledging the difficulty in establishing a clear connection between beliefs and ecological change, Boomgard examines Javanese interactions with haunted and sacred forests, tree-dwelling spirits, and sacred trees. He observes that while maintaining some of their animism in the face of Hindu, Buddhist, and Muslim conquests, the Javanese had an initial positive affect on the forest. Boomgard concludes however that even before the appearance of the Europeans, a dense population, economic diversification, and early state formation precipitated forest exploitation in Indonesia.
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